THE HISTORY OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORY OF WEST NILE AND MADI REGIONS OF LADO KINGDOM BY UGANDA FOR GREAT BRITAIN SINCE FROM 1912 / 1914 TILL TODATE
West Nile and Madi in the Story of Lado History
Notes on The Decolonisation Issue of the Kingdom of Lado in Africa and The Political and Historical Maps and Flags of Lado till todate 3000 a.d
Hereby below are the designed Colonial Flags used by Belgium ( King Leopoldo II ) and that of Great Britain by Britain over Lado Kingdom :
1. Colonial Flag of Belgium ( King Leopold II ) Belgian / Africa Sudan over Lado’s Enclave Kingdom State (1894 – 1903 ) . Lado under the Control by Belgium according to the European Berlin Treaty signed on 26th February 1885 by the Articles 6 , 12 and 15 for the Colonisation of African Peoples
2. Colonial Flag of Great Britain / British / Africa – Sudan over Lado’s Enclave Kingdom State ( 1894 – 1906 ) shown as below whereby Great Britain undertook , forcing Belgium ( King Leopold of Belgium ) to give Lado to be under the British Colonial Rule , thus inverting the Recognised Belgium and Lado Agreement signed by the International Convention Agreement Treaty between Belgium and Lado on 28th September 1892 which was signed at Wadelai in Lado to end the Ten ( 10 ) Years of the War fighting between Lado and Belgium ( from 1879 – 1889 ) in occupying Lado . The Belgians according to the Treaty agreed to honour the Crown of Lado and in the end signed the Agreement for an International Cooperation with Lado Authorities .
The British never liked the Terms of this Treaty Agreement fetched bewteen Lado and Belgium , so they escogitated a Plan on to take Lado from Belgium , intimidating Belgium ( King Leopold ) militarily if Belgium would not give in the end Lado to become under the Rule of Great Britain . It was by this method that , Britain introduced to Belgium ( King Leopold of Belgium ) in 1896 the Law fiction of Britain having Leased Lado to Great Britain in 1894 and that at the end of the Death of ( King Leopold of Belgium ) , Belgium would have to hand back Lado to Great Britain . However King Leopold died in 1909 without having signed , ratified before , this British Fiction Law Agreement which left only Britain to mantain its Military War on Belgium and informing Belgium Governament , if Belgium refused to Obey to give away Lado to Britain . As a weak Military Country , the Belgium Government under duress / Coercion eventually Agreed to cede / transfer Lado to Great Britain . This is how and illegally Britain got hold of Lado and Lado till todate / today is fighting Britain over this Occupation of Lado and Britain’s refusal to give the Lado Independence though Lado has its Right to it to be ” The Independent State in Sudan Central Africa ” or , as the Reinstated Kingdom State of Lado in Africa as before – The Great Lado State Kingdom instituited by the 9th May 1772 Constitution of Lado drawn up .
Colonial Flag of Great Britain’s – ” Africa Sudan or Black Africa ” , introduced over Lado Enclave ( 1894 – 1906 ) :
Decolonisation News Service for The Kingdom of Lado with its Adopted Flags now in the process of the Decoconisation Issue :
The Present Flag of the Kingdom State of Lado
Present Flag of the Freedom Fighters of Lado :
Map of Lado with the Surrounding Countries to it :
Detailed Map of Lado with Countries Surrounding to it – ( Heart of Africa ) :
Map of Lado Land Showing the People of Lado intact in the Territory Land of Lado – ( of The 29 Tribes / or Nation Tribes of Lado ) :
Britain’s Illegal Partion of Lado
Illegal Partition of Lado by Britain Creating West of the Nile and Madi Regions as West Nile Subregion Part of Uganda marked as 1 & 2 , thus South west of Lado ceded , becoming today as Subregion of Uganda being Administrated by Britain from and by Uganda till todate .
The British Diplomat sent to Lado
A Senior Police High Commissioner in South Africa , Mr E. Weatherhead , was sent by the British Government to participate in the Lugbari ( Lado ) British War from 1914 – 1919 to end up the British Occupation of Lado . The British envoy was sent to Odupi in Lado to sign this Agreement on belhaf of the British Crown . The British on the Diplomatic character honoured to respect the existence of the State of Lado Kingdom . The Agofe / King of Lado signed the peace agreement for Lado . As a legitimate recognition , the Agofe ( King ) of Lado was awarded the Merit of the highest Order in Council of the Queen ( The title Order in Merit , O M . ) . Mr Athur . E . Weatherhead in turn was appointed then , Governor General to represent the British Crown to Lado with Headquarters in the Capital of Lado , Arua .
One of the Cardinal out come of this Truce ( Peace Agreement to end the War ) was to prepare an understandable future Diplomatic relations to be established between Britain and Lado and to find meaningful terms on the Water uses in question and particularly the uses of the water flows of the White Nile river . ( cf : The Nile – Water Diplomacy ) , as put it , who controls the entire Nile Valley water flows from the Nile source up to Egypt Nile delta , controls Egypt . Britain being quite aware and till todate tried and tries to push out any other Foreign Powers to establish and exercise any Rule Authority directly or indirectly over the Land Territories through which the Nile river water flows . Looking at Maps and following the flow course of the River White Nile , and you will find out that the bulk of the source of the Nile flow is in the bolt hold of the source by Lake Ombizako which the British named Lake Albert and really is in Lado Kingdom .
Lado was and or is and will remain always the strategic Land to be under the supervision of Britain as Britain had already secretly occupied Egypt in 1882 . Therefore the other Western Foreign Powers of the World had to be pushed away from occupying Lado . By Military War or not , Britain must take Lado as a possession under the Crown of Britain . This was and till todate is the leading Chapter to the European and Western major Conflict over Lado . For the best reasons known only to the Western European History Writers , it is hard to find the name Lado being used in their writings and in their Diplomatic Corridors . Lado is vaguely refered to as ”Side Territory ” by them or ”That Area ” of Central Africa , and of course widely in use now , Lado is hidden under the collective term name of the Great Lake Regions of Central Africa , and now again , as South Sudan Stateto suit the cause and the course of events of the Wars in Central Africa of which Lado is the Heart . They insist that Lado and its History must not be known and Lado never to be a Kingdom State standing in Africa . Underneath is The Map of Uganda , whereby West Nile and Madi were removed from Lado Enclave and ceded , attached becoming part of Uganda by Britain , forcefully and illegally today still standing as the North West of Uganda .
The indications in Red and Green Colours of West Nile and Madi are as 1&2 on this Map of Uganda as shown below :
Lado , Illegally as Part of Sudan
On 10 June 1910 , following King of Belgium – Leopold’s death in 1909 , Lado became a Province of the Anglo Egyptian Sudanand in 1912 whereby the southern half of Lado was ceded to Uganda , then a British protectorate and the British nominated their Colonial National by name Mr. Athur . Everlyn . Weathehead as the District Commissioner and later raised to the Status of a Governor General in for West Nile and Madi Regions only . Athur . E . Weatherhead was a British Colonial Administrator to say who first served in South Africa , Uganda , and then Seychelles became the first District Commissioner for Britain in Lado of the ceded part of South East Lado , nick named West Nile District in Uganda . It was actually then and effectively in 1914 , the Southern portion of the Lado Enclave was assigned from Belgium to Uganda under the British Protectorate . Then Weatherhead took over the whole Administration of the ” New Area ” and built a Station home in Arua for himself , the present Headquarters of West Nile and Madi occupied by Uganda for Britain . He drew up the first plan for himself of Arua Town on the advice of his Friend , Sir Francis Reginald Wingate , who was the Governor General of Sudan by then from 22 December 1899 to 31 December 1916 . Locally , Weatherhead was nicknamedNjerekede / Ejerikedi , meaning a Negotiator by Lugbari People , ( describing him inotherwards as a brave honest man they could trust and who they believed trusted them ) . The Lugbari People and all other Peoples of Lado today , recall him by the Road in Arua township which they have named after him , that is the Weatherhead Park Lane . The Road starts from the Main Round about adjacent to the Golf Course and extends East towards to Anyafio Village in Arua Town itself . The Lugbara ( the Lugbari of Lado ) however recall and still know perfectly well that Mr. Athur Evelyn Weatherhead , waged the continual Wars against Lugbara groups of Lado in an attempt to impose the British Colonial Rule . He , Weatherhead refered to the Lugbari People and described them to his British Authorities in his writings as “ Wild and Unattractable ”, and as “ Shy , Unorganized People ”, requiring “ severe Measures before submitting to the British Administration ” .
Following infact the British policy of indirect Rule , Athur . E . Weatherhead chose and continued using the same Chiefs which were appointed and were collaborating with the Belgians for Administration and control during the Belgium presence in Lado following the Belgium and Lugbara – Lado International Convention Treaty Agreement of 28th September 1892 for Cooperation . Truely so , hereby , is brought to know of the on going conflicts within Uganda and West Nile / Madi is over this : The Population People of this Regions are Citizens of Lado till todate fighting for their Decolonisation of their State Lado by the International Convention Recognition of 28thSeptember 1892 , signed between Belgium and Lado .
Note : ” Uganda became a State much later than Lado on 1stApril 1894 by the International Convention Recognition , signed between Britain and Uganda ” . These are the standing Legal Orders till todate and living Lado as an Occupied State in Africa . Lado is still defending its Territorial Integrity or Nduvunduvu – meaning Sovereignty in this part of Africa yet . Thus the Decolonisation Issue of Lado now and that is by the ( UN General Assembly Resolution 1514 ( XV ) of 14 December 1960 , UN General Assembly Resolutions 43 / 47 of 22 November 1988 ; Article 1 and Article 73 of the UN Charter of 26 June 1945 and also Articles 6 , 12 and 15 of the Berlin Treaty of 26th February 1885 .) . The Boundry of Lado by the Agreements of December 1906 is still Valid todate 3000 a.d . Lado is still a considered Occupied Territory in its divided parts under the Triangle of the former Colonial Countries Uganda ( British Colony ) , Sudan : North & South ( Anglo / Egyptian Condominium Colony ) and D R Congo ( Belgium Colony ) . In brief these African Countries : Uganda , the two Sudan States of North and South , and D R Congo are indirectly controlling Lado on the orders of their former Colonial Masters to do so and perpetually refusing to let go Independent Lado State in Africa . Note of the two Treaties of Importance to Lado Boundary issues :
1887, 29 April : Paris Treaty betwwen France and Belgium was concluded about the frontiers between the Congo – Leopoldville , Lado , and the French Equatoria Africa , Congo – Brazzaville , Central African Republic , and Chad .
1890 : On 24 May a Treaty ( sometimes refered to as Macknnon Treaty ) was signed betwwen Britain and Belgium Recognising the Frontier betwwen Lado and British Spheres of influence to the East of the River Nile .
Map of Lado Boundary Agreements as a Country on its own , established and signed for by the European Treaty / Treaties which is / or are still Valid till todate 3000 a.d following now the Decolonisation Issues of Lado ;
Map 1 :
Map 2 :
Lado was known in the World as Lado
The first presence of former British Prime Minister , Sir Winston Leonard Spencer – Churchill to have passed in Lado and having killed a Big White ( rather known as the wide Mouth Rhinoceros ) in the Country ( often called /or known as Lado Enclave ) made the American Former President Theodore ( Teddy ) Roosevelt to rush immediately to Lado and he arrived to Dufile in Lado in 1909 where he stayed to enjoy his hunting of the White Rhinoceroses . In his own words before he embarked on his African Journey from U.S.A , he said : ” I should consider my entire African Trip a success if I could get to that Country Lado ( Lado Enclave ) . The White Rhinoceros is the Animal I care to get —- even more than the Elephant ” . He killed Nine of them before he left while Winston Spencer Churchill had killed only one in his Stay at Wadelai – Bora land in Lado . These two former Leaders took to recognise Lado Enclave State then and did so on to establish Relations with Lado People and as such came into :
1909 : Treaty of Dufile ( dufule ) between Lado and United States of America – U.S.A ( For Cooperation ) . The Treaty became effective during the period of President Theodore Roosevelt ( New York ) .
1920 : From 1914 – 1919 , War broke up between Britain and Lado which in History is known as Lugbari – British Wars . It was fought for 5 years and ended in 1920 with the Truce ( Peace Treaty ) signed at Odupi in Lado whereby the Lado people rejected the British Crown till todate over Lado .
1936 : From 1926 there was ever growing tension between British occupants and Lado which led to the war breaking out into the Kakua – Kajo – Keji war in between 1931 – 1936 during the period of the British Governor of Lado Mr. Martin Parr by then , and the war did not end until the United States ( U.S.A ) intervention by President Franklin D . Rooesvert in 1936 , following the Treaty issues of 1909 between Lado and United States of America .
1951 : This time again following the assassination death of the Prime Minister of Lado , War re – opened with Britain , the three ( 3 ) years war , ( 1948 – 1951 ) came to be stopped by the British Conservative Government under the wise old man Prime Minister Winston . S .Church Hill in 1951 whereby Church Hill himself favoured a thoughtful approach to the Independence for Lado with the Governor for Lado affairs under Major General Sir John Hall .
1953 : Inspite of Church Hill’s efforts for Lado independence , the British continued to ignore such efforts later and instead in 1953 assassinated the Keego / Prime Minister of Lado to change the Political cause of Lado , in this particular moment , infact , Lado had Rejected the British intention of creating an East African Federation as Lado a part of it and the same year the Lado Envoy Extraordinary Atamva John Bart Agami who is today’s Agofe / King of Lado was sent with the assistance of Ethiopia – Emperor Haile Selassie Tafari Makonnen to meet Prime Minister , Wiston . S . Church hill , in Malta of the assassination issue of the Agofe of Lado .
1954 : In 1954 the Nile Bridge talks – between Lado Envoy Extraordinary and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II took place in Uganda . It was agreed that Lado would be independent in 1960 / 1961 but every body knows Lado is not yet independent . Lado is still moving on , removing the Residual Colonial Mentality of both the Authorities of Belgium and Britain who are still then mantaining Lado as an Occupied Country State in Africa for themselves since when from 1947 ; the question of the Decolonisation of Lado was raised in the United Nations Organisation ( UNO ) – Trusteeship Council by the USSR ( former Union of Socialist Soviet and Russia which the British wished so to have discussed it with Uganda and Lado together for their Independences to take place the near future by then . The citizens of Lado asked for freedom . This State of Affairs is what is going on till todate when the Lado Independence was blocked once again by Britain in 1961 and letting only Uganda receive its Independence in 1962 .
What of Lado Independence ?
In 1962 , Uganda received her independence from Britain but on the Political grounds , the Lado leader AGOFE CULU John Bart Agami clashed with the British ; and he was arrested on the 11th September 1962 judged at night and 12th September 1962 he was imprisoned for 7 years in Luzira maximum Prison ( next to the execution chamber Room 8 ) . The reasons were : he was asked to sign that Lado should be passed into British Administration . He refused to sign it and for three weeks he was tortured in Luzira Prison . In October , he organized with some of his Soldiers ( 4th Regiment of the East African King African Rifles – KAR ) an Escape from the Prison . That was in 1962 . From then till now he has been in exile ( barring a brief period in 1971 from June to November and another period from January 1973 to April 1974 ) . So the Independence of Lado still lies with the British Authorities of the United Kingdom of Britain and Northern Ireland , usually in brief known as United Kingdoms – ( UK ) .
N.B : Not until Lado is free , the West Nile Area will always be of the Lado Enclaved closed door Refugee Area as the World still keeps Silent over this Issue . Lado is fighting over it , ending the Refugee problems in West Nile and Madi still and at least to know finally that there will be No more Refugees Issues in West Nile and Madi Areas anymore . What Uganda / Ugandans ought / must know is that : As an African Country ( Land / Territory and People ) which forms Lado and with its own History has a Right , fighting for its Territorial Ownership Intergrity and the Right on to protecting its Citizens from any Foreign Aggressions till todate . This applies to all : whether be Africans or Non Africans , makes no difference as their intentions are only to Occupy Lado Land and the People of Lado consisting of the 29 Tribes in the Lado Land Territory .
The Belgium and Britain Occupation of Lado
Todays and past Lado Political picture somehow seems it was Britain only involved as the First European Country to Occupy Lado under their ( European Laws ) but the fact is so different in Political details to know anyway of / or on Lado International Political Issues and that is in quoting and recalling of the History remarks by King Leopold II of Belgium about Lado , following and according to the International Convention Treaty Agreement Recognitions signed between Lado and Belgium on the date of 28th September 1892 and showing the the Boundry Limits of Lado :
” King Leopoldo of Belgium , Head of the Free State of the Congo considered the Sudan territory of Side ( also known by the name Sweet Leopoldiano ) like part of his territory . When in 1881 the Ladoans and the revolt of the Black Arabised Mahdi , made loose to Egypt the control of Sweet , Leopoldo in turn decided to send diverse men and his Belgium Military units to the Side of his expeditions and settled down a position in Lado and thus occupying Lado ” and that is by and according to the European Berlin Treaty Agreements of 26th of February 1885 .
The European Agreements over the Cover – up Boundry Lines of Lado
The Agreements with Great Britain and Belgium ( 12 of May and 14 of August of 1894 ) recognized the temporary possession to him ( the King of Belgium ) of the territory called formally Side Enclave , separated from the province of Bahr el Ghazal in and of South Sudan . The agreement was modified by the 9 of May of 1906 having delimited the sphere of influence of both States in the Nile and Tanganyika Lake whereby certain territories of the sphere of British influence were left into the hands of the Free State of the Congo . The territory mentioned has the Eastern border is the Nile , the western one is the Nile Basin , the border of the North is a horizontal line through Fashoda , and the one of the South is the German Eastern Africa . While this territory remains in being of the Free State of the Congo , it will have a special flag for that matter then : And this Territory was Lado and hereby on the Map below is the Territory being marked , which is Lado attached to and be Under Congo Belgium Authority . Belgium took these Regions in their Administration then and later left Britain to take over the rest of the Lado Areas which Britain Partitioned once again to be under Anglo / Egyptian Sudan and British / Uganda Protectorate in East Africa , thus holding the Administration of these Parts of Lado for Britain . This is how Lado till todate remains an Occupied Territory in Africa by Belgium and Great Britain . A matter which Lado is still fighting for , her Decolonisation of the Occupation by these two Countries ( Belgium and Britain since from 1947 till todate ) in Africa .
Map Showing Lado Territories attached to Congo Belgium as the District Areas of these Lado Regions of SOUTH , NORTH ITURI and UELE Regions being marked with the numbers as seen underneath : No_ 12 & No_ 15 in 1905 in the Partition of Lado by Britain and Belgium :
Also note below is The Colonial Special Flag and the Coat of Arm for and used over Lado ( 1894 – 1903 ) by the King of Belgium which is different from that of Belgium Congo Free State .
The territory of Lado within the agreement was divided in two zones by the line of the 30 degrees : the western one would always belong to the Sovereigns of the Free State of the Congo and the Eastern one would be rented to the Sovereign and would be return to British Sovereignty after the death of Leopoldo II . After protests of France to Leopoldo II , it was agreed in turn that the territory to the East of the line of the 30 degrees was reduced then to 15,000 miles square . This territory became the Enclave of Side ( although it was not an enclave ) , a seperate administration was established in the city of Side , Capital Lado then . See Map of Lado traces in all Map showings here in the text writings .
Great Britain in her pretext protested soon by the bad administration of the Territory by the Belgian King Leopoldo II . Before King Leopoldo died he made as a donation the Congo Free State to Belgium , thus becoming a Colony ( The Belgian Congo ) in 1908 but never surrendered to give Lado to Britain as Britain pretends so . The last Agreement over Lado was the only one King Leopold made with France which nullified the previous Britains claims of renting Lado’s Enclave to the King of Belgium in 1894 . Lado Leopoldo II died in 1909 and the unclear illegal adopted term of renting ( Leasing ) territory side to the King up to 1910 seized to exist but Britain again through military intimidation and forcefully imposed on Belgium Government to reverting Lado to Britain ” . Britain in acts to destroy Lado decided on her own with war campaigns against any of the Western powers who dared to enter into Lado Affairs , partitioned then , most of the Territory Land Enclave ( Lado ) , incorporting it into the State of Sudan , except for a portion of the South – west that was ceded to Uganda and part of South – east was left to be Belgium colony . Britain pretends and forgets , in the legal consensus , that Lado is a property of Lado people but not a possession as such for rents . No single Lado person has at any one time signed with no any foreign power and not even with Great Britain herself to give the right of ownership of Lado territory to foreign Rules or for Rents to other Countries .
BRITAINS MENTOR IN PARTITION OF LADO
Britain took advantage of the desire of the Egyptian Khedive Is-mail Pasha of the Ottoman Empire , which was prompted by his Cotton plant Policy , to gain possession of the entire Nile Basin . Ismail was setting up Cotton plantations in Egypt and expanding the irrigation systems . He realised , however , that he could keep the Egyptian irrigation systems fully supplied only by laying hands on the Nile Basin and all its tributaries . Hence , Ismail’s wars in Ethiopia and in Equatorial Africa and the taking over to occupy ( Equatorial / Lado ) . The Khedive’s aggressive policy attracted a number of European Adventurers . The first of these was the Englishman Sir Samuel White Baker . In 1869 , Ismail gave Baker the Administration of the Equatorial Province of Egyptian Sudan and the city of Lado , which He came to regard as his own private domain – LADO EQUATORIA PROVINCE OF EGYPT . Todays Map of Equatoria in Red which is the North part of Lado which is attached to South Sudan . South Sudan has been a Territory Land of the Republic of Sudan before it got its Independence from Sudan ( FORMER ANGLO / EGYPTIAN SUDAN ) which is now split into two States as : North and South Independent States in 2011 .
But as Lado is still occupied territory , part of North Lado ” Equatoria Lado ” and through the OLD – CONSERVATIVE Britain’s ( BRITISH ) mind of thinking and as a Permenant Member of United Nations Security Council till todate advised and advises in her Capacity , is to cut as a Region North Lado ” EQUATORIA / LADO ” and still to remain an appendix of / or attach to the Newly Caved out Independent State of South Sudan State by them . And for Britain it means that or this way , Lado is completely defeated on Political and Legal grounds to exist as a Nation State in the Heart Continent of Africa following the War of Lado against the British Occupation of Lado , as is Recorded hereby of the beginning of Anyanya Wars against Great Britain in keeping Lado attached to Sudan ( or to South Sudan ) .
TORIT Massacres of 1955 in EQUATORIA – LADO
On 1 January 1956 , Anglo/Egyptian Sudan got Independence under the name of Sudan , from Britain . But all the preparations for the Independence of Lado was stopped by the British Authorities ; and the British hurried to give the Independence of Anglo/Egyptian Sudan after the Torit Massacres of August 1955 and thereby ignored the fact that , there were / are still Four States in that Nile Valley Basin Region : LADO , SOUTH SUDAN , NORTH SUDAN , and EGYPT .
While the People of South Sudan did not object to the inclusion of its Land and People to North Sudan , the people of Lado ( Equatoria ) protested and this was clearly demonstrated by the Liberation War the Lado people of Torit Region , Yeyi Region , and Rholi Region fought . This war was known as the ANYANYA War in Lado / Equatoria from 1955 – 1972 . It was a War of Lado Liberation under Rev . Fr Saturnino Lokure ( Luhure ) a citizen of Lado , who was assassinated on 7 June 1967 . Major General Joseph Lagu of Madi Tribe ( Lado ) was the Military Officer in charge of the Military Affairs .
The Kokora Policy
President , General Jaafar Nimeeri of the Republic State of Sudan by then ( North Sudan and South Sudan united ) , after the Peace Agreement of 27 March 1972 signed in Addis Ababa , in Ethiopia between the Ladoans of Equatoria Region and Sudan State Government , introduced the Policy of trying to solve Lado Affairs and Sudan in the Region in a such away , the Lado Region of Equatoria was finally to be separated from that of South Sudan . This is what is locally termed and widely known in Sudan ( both North and South ) and Lado as Kokora Policy . The New Boundary followed the Colonial Boundaries between Lado and Southern Sudan , by the Cairo Agreement of January 1899 . And so from that Agreement , the Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan State were taking , one step at a time , in order to reach the State Affairs of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Independence of Lado Kingdom in the Heart of Sudan Central Africa as such . Accordingly so , what is called East , Central and West Equatoria in Sudan or in South Sudan State now is the North part of Lado Kingdom . In brief to say , is that : East , Central and West Equatoria are the Occupied zones of North Lado ( Lado Land ) , now placed , under this newly caved out South Sudan State – Country in 2011 by the Anglo / Americans in the Heart of Africa to hide the Struggling efforts of Lado Indepedence issue . The Anglo / Americans do not want and hate LADO to exist .
Reasons behind the Kokoro Policy revealing the Dark sides of Events over Lado in the Sudan / Anglo Condominium
Lado Enclave stretching South-west from Juba to the Nile-Congo divide was Administered by the Belgians until 1910 when Lado was placed or transferred illegally to be under the Rule of Sudan / Anglo Condominium rule from 1912 , forced by Britain in Partitioning Lado . The North part of Lado was cut off , placed under the Condominium while the South – west being left under Congo to please the Belgium Authority and the South – East ceded to be Administered by the East Africa British Uganda Protectorate . Meaning Lado was Partitioned by Britain into three ( 3 ) parts :
North Lado attached to Sudan , todays ( North and South Sudan States ) South Lado but partitioned once again into two : South-west of Lado given to be under Belgium Congo , South-east under the British East Africa Uganda Protectorate .
The British Aim / Objective was that Lado Kingdom eventually would be completely destroyed when Independence would come to be given to the three Countries of Sudan ( 1956 became Independent ) , Congo ( 1960 became Independent ) and Uganda ( 1962 became Independent ) . That way they ( the British ) , politically thought , Lado people would never care of being a State or Kingdom State anymore but would have surrendered to be Ruled / or be under Authority of their Satellite Countries of Sudan , Congo and Uganda , ruling / administering Lado Lands and and the Lado People for them .
These Partition spheres were established by 1903 and were incorporated in the Sudan Government Missionary Regulations (1905 ) by which the Church Missions were bound not to conduct evangelism in Northern Sudan of much more Arab / Moslem-Islam influence , or to establish any Mission Stations North of the 10th parallel ( i.e. north of Malakal ) . The Spheres Policy continued to apply throughout the Condominium period though it became more precise and more complex as the Christians Church Mission work extended and New Church Missions entered Sudan .
In 1964 and that is after Independence of the Sudan from 1956 , the Missionaries in the South areas of Sudan were expelled . But already the Opposition to the Government was hardening . In exile in Zaire / Congo , a number of Ladoan and Sudanese Politicians including a Catholic Priest , Father Saturnino Lahure / or Lukure ( a Ladoan ) had already in 1962 formed the Sudan African Closed Districts National Union ( SACONU ) , which took its name from the re-imposition of the Old Condominium Closed Districts in the South . The following year , it moved its Headquarters to South – East of Lado which was under Uganda independent then holding South – East Administration of Lado to Kampala in Uganda and changed its name to the Sudan African National Union ( SANU ) .
In 1963 , within Southern Sudan ( North part of Lado under the Sudan Rule ) , a Guerilla Army ( for Liberation of Equatoria / Lado ) called the ( Anyanya ) was formed . The formation of the Anyanya marks the commencement / beginning of a Nine ( 9 ) year Civil war that engulfed most parts of Southern Sudan then to be Liberated . The Main Aim for Ladoans was to liberate North Part of Lado from the Republic of Sudan Rule by the Ladoans . Many of the Sudanese Black peoples of the South : Dinka , Shilluk , Jo Luo , Nuer and others joined the Ladoans of the Equatoria to fight the Khartum discriminative Administration of and against all the Blacks of the South Regions and mainly of the Christian Faith Beliefs of the Sudan State which was mainly in the hands of the White Arab origines in the North of Sudan State .
In 1969 , an Officer’s coup in Sudan ended a confused and acrimonious period of civilian Rule whereby the Army Officer General Jaafar Nimeiri emerged as the leader of the new Military regime , and was to hold on to Power despite a number of coups that came close to toppling him , until April 1985 . As Sudan Northern politics , under Military control , were gaining more direction and Authority , so the Rebel movement , the Anyanya in the south was becoming more cohesive and effective under the dynamic leadership of Colonel Joseph Lagu ( a Ladoan of Madi Tribe in Lado ) .
The time was Right and Ripe for an attempt at Conciliation / Arbitration to end the War between the Equatoria Lado and the Sudan State .
During the summer of 1971 the World Council of Churches and the All Africa Conference of Churches , sought to bring the two sides together ( Equatoria / LADO and former Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium ) . A conference was arranged in Addis Ababa between the representatives of the Khartoum Government ( led by Abel Alier , Southern Dinka , who was Nimeiri’s Minister for Southern Affairs ) and Representatives of the Lado / or Equatoria Lado Liberation Movement in the South Sudan ( Political Wing of the Anyanya ) . An Agreement was signed at the end of the Conference , known as the ( KOKORA POLICY ) on February 27th March 1972 , leading to the Regional Self-Government Act for the Southern Provinces , including the attached the North part of Lado Equatoria to South Sudan by the British Authorities in the pre – Independence Ruling of Sudan by the Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium Rule . The Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan State were taking , one step at a time , in order to reach the State Affairs of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the
Independence of Lado Kingdom in the Heart of Sudan Central Africa as such .
The substantial self-Government accorded to the South by this Agreement enabled the South to enjoy ten years of relative Peace though these years definately were marked by Political instability and wrangling , and deep division between the different Political factions . Much of this revolved around the perceived Dominance of the Dinkas in Southern Politics especially through Abel Alier who was President of the (Southern) High Executive Council from 1972 until 1978 and again in 1980 : The Campaign Aim was : South Sudan not to seperate from the North Sudan .
With this Campaign Aim again by the Sudan State as a whole : both North and South , One draws his / or her own conclusion and that this Addis Ababa Agreement (1972 ) gave the South ten years of some what tense and anxious peace . The dream of a ” Christian ” South largely responsible for its own Affairs and speedily making good all the development losses of the previous 10 to 15 years rapidly faded . The memory of the ” Movement ” and a generalized sense of a ” Christian ” South were not enough to maintain unity . Southern Politics , particularly after about 1976 became embittered and factional as the Political representatives of the farming peoples of Equatoria / Lado had still to struggle against the Political Power and Expertise of the Politicians of Dinka and other Nilotic peoples of both North and South Sudan Confederates . ln 1978 elections in the South led to the resignation of Abel Alier and the Political emergence of Joseph Lagu as President of the High Executive Council with prominently Equatorian support . From there on , Southern Politics became increasingly confused and turbulent , leading to ever greater intervention and manipulation from Khartoum , against the spirit of the Addis Ababa Agreement between Equatoria / LADO and the Administration of the Sudan State .
Southern Sudan Politics in short became increasingly unstable as the Politicians fought increasingly for their own rather than Regional Interests . This gave the Northern KHARTUM Government ample opportunity for interference .
In 1981 : President Nimeiri proposed to “re-divide” the South into three separate Regions , transparently a plan to ” Divide and Rule ” . While from Equatoria / Lado , and with the Advice from the Lado Agofe’s Office ( the Green Bureau ) this plan was supported by Major General Lagu , indeed promoted then by him , and many Equatorians saw it as an opportunity to escape the Political Dominance of the Nilotics for the South over the Administration over Lado .
In 1983 : Confused maneuverings followed but in June 1983 Nimeiri unilaterally ” re-divided ” the Southern Region into three regions , based on the former Equatoria / LADO , Bahr-el-Ghazal , and Upper Nile . This was only one of the issues , that re awakened the Old North – South hostilities , and also divided Southerners of South Sudan once again to be against the seperation of Northern part of Lado which was attached and till todate is attached to Southern part of or to South Sudan . There was constant flouting of the Addis Ababa Agreement by the Central Government at Khartum , and Southern Sudanese became increasingly suspicious of the North Sudan Government intentions in Major development projects like the Jonglei Canal , the exploitation of the South’s newly discovered oil Reserves and the progressive collapse of the Economy and the Bankruptcy of the Government put increasing pressure on the provision of Government services in the South ( and throughout the Country ) . However and as the catalyst , the most emotive development was the imposition of a form of Sharia Law on all parts of Sudan in September 1983 .
This was the climax of a long process in which Nimeiri had become increasingly involved with renascent fundamentalism . The technocrat secularist Army Colonel who came to power appeared not only to have appreciated increasingly the political Potential of Islam , but also seemed to have undergone some kind of Religious conversion of himself . In particular he fell increasingly under the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and their leader Hassan el-Turabi . It was the imposition of Sharia Law ( though there was no practical possibility of it becoming a reality in the South Sudan and Lado / Equatoria then ) that finally alienated Southern and Christian opinion from the Nimeiri regime : Lado / Equatoria people this time only giving a hand to the Southern Sudanese of the Dinka , Shilluk , Nuer and Jo Luo and other lineages of the real South Sudan Citizens .
The Anglo / American Covert Blue Print Plans : SPLM brakes away from Equatoria / LADO
Already in May 1983 a mutiny at Bor had begun the revolt . The Sudan People’s Liberation army (SPLA) was soon formed under an ex – Army Colonel , John Garang’ de Mabior trained in America ( USA ) . This rapidly replaced other rebel groups like , the Anyanya Military group units in Equatoria / LADO , and by the summer of 1986 SPLA controlled most of the southern Countrysides and deeply entered in Equatoria Lado , except some Southern border areas and where the SPLA was confining the National Sudanese Army to the Garrison towns .
This situation recreated a “re-division” issue , dividing Southerners , mainly between the Equatorians / LADO on the one hand and the Nilotic tribes of Bahr-el-Ghazal and Upper Nile on the other side of the real South Sudan Regions . The SPLA was seen as being a predominantly Dinka movement and as far as many Equatorians / LADOANS were concerned , the” re-division ” had been not about ending Dinka dominance . Southerners and southern Christians therefore found themselves deeply divided over the rebel movements . The Churches as a result found it difficult to speak with any clear voice in the present conflict other than on the issue of Sharia Law and the growing Power of the National Islamic Front , the Political Arm of the Muslim brotherhood . The Dinka and Nilotic communities within the major Churches have on the whole sympathized with the SPLA . Many of them joined up , and virtually all their relatives hence got involved in the struggle as put it to Free themselves from the Moslem / Islam North Sudan with the help of the Anglo / American Blue Print Plans .
Equatorians / LADOANS on the other hand have been equally cynical about the Khartum Central Government intentions but then at the same time also mistrust the Dinka – Dominated SPLA under the guide of the Anglo / Americans . This division remained until 1989 although the evident success of the SPLA started drawing increasing numbers of Equatorians to the cause , many of whom are Christians anyway , in otherwards they ( the Lado – Equatorians bowed down to Christian brotherhood to assist the SPLA .
The fall of Nimeiri in April 1985 was due in some measure to the Political pressure created by the success of the SPLA under the Anglo / American – USA military Might , but events since then never fundamentally altered the situations in the South . The transitional Military Government of Siwar-al-Dahab ( April 1985 to May 1986 ) and the civilian Government of Sadiq al-Mahdi ( May 1986 ) prosecuted the war with a ferocity only matched by that of the SPLA . The result was a terrible devastation of the South on a scale that far outstrips that of the first civil war by the Anyanya . The year 1988 saw possibly half a million deaths from war , famine and disease . Virtually the entire population of Southern Sudan was displaced , either in North Sudan , in the remote bush in wretched refugee settlements , in the few southern towns left to the Government , or in exile outside the Country Sudan and the lot of Equatorians / LADOANS were left homeless .
In the world picture , the war then really presented all the Christian / Churches , Moslem / Mosques with issues of a complexity that the first civil war undertaken by Anyanya did not . As the war divided Southerners of Sudan , so the attitudes of Christians and of Church leaders became divided . The tribal dimension of the war opened / roused tribal tensions throughout the South and all the Churches felt was feeling the strains of Tribalism . On the one hand now there are reports from the homelands of the Dinka , long dominated by the SPLA , of many baptisms and confirmations , and of the emergence of many new congregations in areas where previously there were few Christians . At its highest level the SPLA has not expressed any sense of Christian identity , and has in general used a Marxist or secularist terminology . But there are many and increasing numbers of Christians in its forces anyway .
At the time of my writing now still there are no indications that peace is near . National politics continue to be fragmented and without direction. The SPLA is merely continuing escalation of war in the South , failing to bring the Government to the negotiating Table about the Lado Issues as well .
There is a sense in which the issues which face Sudan ( both North and South States) now and to which the two Countries still fail to find answers are the same as those which faced the Condominium Government once the country had in large measure been pacified . What is the place of an African non-Muslim South within a Sudan that is predominantly Arabized and Muslim ? We all know that the British answer vacillated between isolating and incorporating the South . The steady progress of Christian missions in the South during the Condominium period helped develop southern identity and distinctiveness , just as British policy inhibited any over arching sense of National identity . At Independence the religious question was already deeply embedded in the wider question of how National Unity could be forged . In otherwords the Tribe – Nation Identity feeling in building a Nation – State of a purely African Political Nature could be forged . Two prolonged periods of civil war , and the growth of the Church in the South , together with the spreading influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and an orthodox consciousness in the North have not brought a resolution any nearer to peace in the one time , Anglo / Egyptian Sudan Condominium ( North Sudan / South Sudan ) as termed and Independent two States today .
What next to write on , is now of the future of the two Sudans ( North and South Sudans ) : Both Independent without Lado still being Independent —– Where does lie the answer for Lado Freedom Independence still ?
Map of Equatoria as shown below , ( Part of North Lado shown in Red and divided into three provinces as West , Central and East Equatoria ) within the Country of South Sudan now from 2011
Lado Enclave Issue in Sudan Central Africa and of the Decolonisation Issue in this Water Shade Region of Africa still pending till todate in the period of 3000 a.d .
In a False Statement to the rest of the world to know , Britain issued and continue still in a wrong direction of Political education propaganda for people to know that , The Lado Enclave in Africa was leased to King Leopold II as a personal consession for his lifetime by Great Britain and with this ( King Leopold II’s death ) , the Lado Enclave was then returned to the British control . Basing their ( Britain / British Governments reasonings ) on this false political propaganda , Britain – the British Governments – have always blocked and are still blocking the Independence issue of Lado in Central Africa .
Lado Reports information on the Present Agofe of Lado
The Issue of AGOFE in Lado Kingdom and the Derivation of the Term Agofe
The Defination term of AGOFE derives from Lugbari or Lugbara Language of Lado and is the Highest and a Noble Legal Title equivalent of a King , Chief of Chiefs or Chief of State / State Kingdom which was and is still vested in the Person Ruler of Lado Kingdom since from 847 a.d , through 1772 when Lado had its Constitution drawn on 9th May 1772 till todate in this 21st Centuary of 3000 a.d . The Agofe as a King defended the Nation States of Lado Kingdom through the Arabs and European Colonisation Periods and till todate as the War is still going on for the Freedom and Independence of Lado from its being occupied by Britain and Belgium with the assistance of United States of America now . This Title has been mantained of and as a Legal Official use in the Lugbari or Lugbara Nation – Tribe Society and in all other 29 Nation – Tribes Societies of Lado Kingdom in Africa . The Title is in use for more than 14 Generations now , that is including the present ruling Agofe of today , His Majesty CULU John Bart Agami Onzima II in the Political History of Lugbari and Lado Political Affairs to the present time in the whole Kingdom of Lado . The present Agofe himself is a Lugbari or of Lugbara Tribe . The Agofe in brief to say , is not a Cultural Leader only for the Lugbari tribe as stated or known in Uganda or recognised by the Uganda Government as such . ( THE AGOFE IS THE CHIEF POLITICAL HEAD OF THE KINGDOM STATE OF LADO IN AFRICA ) – Period !
Before we see how the Term Agofe came to be introduced , lets take a look briefly as to who are the Lugbari or Lugbara People in the Kingdom State of Lado in Sudan Central Africa . The Lugbari people and as a Nation Identity came around by the lime lights of its heroes : Jaki Lolo , Dribidu Tere and Sambala Naiga who have been the Three Hero-Founders of the Lugbari Nation at the Foot Mountain of Mt. Rejaf in todays South Sudan . The Lugbari people are generally considered or are the descendants of the Moru and Madi tribes .
Other important Mountain areas of Lugbara are :
Mt. Luku : at a time where Hero Sambala Naiga when he left Ethiopia after the Political upheaval which took place under his Reign over Ethiopia , lived in Lado .
Mt. Iti : where Dribidu Tere , Aneclata Atabua , Lemiro and Ayingani lived in Lado .
Mt. Liru : where Jaki Lolo lived in Lado .
One thing is uncertain and that is about the Lugbari history where they are told lies every second and in their book writings by the European Colonialists and especially by Britain and the people of Uganda about the Tribe Nation Identity of the Lugbari Identity Issues . The Noble Lie Elitists are very adamant about this idea of their noble lie ; the use of their lie to attain a ” positive goal ” . In their view , average citizens in Lado lack the capacity to understand the Bigger Political and Social picture , so must be lied to in order to make then ( Ladoans ) do what is best for themselves . Of course , their vision of what is best for the Ladoans Culture always seems to include first and foremost what is best for them . This Noble lie is a logical fallacy of epic proportions , and One often wonders if global elitists secretly doubt its legitimacy . If you need to lie to people in order to get them to accept your ideas , then there must be something terrible wrong with your ideas . Ideas with vitality and honesty do not need to be sold to the public through chicanery ; the truth takes on a life of its own . Only destructive philosophies need a foundation of lies in order to take root . The Defination of Agofe is not as is presented so by the Government of Uganda . And right now , the Ladoans are working discretely with all their might to wrest this mysterious force being used to destroy the immage of the AGOFE of the Kingdom State of Lado . By the way , Even Insects do have history – What of the Lugbari or Lugbara and their Contribution to their State Kingdom of in Sudan Central Africa ? Not to Forget ! The Kingdom-State of Lado came about from the 13th and 14th Centuaries in the period of Reorganisation of the Region ( Central Africa ) based on the Tribal
Philosophy in order to ensure a proper care and a better Social Services to the People consisting of the The 29 Tribes of Lado Reorganised and are existing till todate with their Affiliation to the State Kingdom of Lado .
The History and the Lado Constitution of 1772 under the Office of His Majesty AGOFE of the Kingdom State of Lado as a National Entity Kingdom in Central Africa dates back to 9 May 847 a.d , though the name and the People contained in the Present 29 Nation-Tribes of Lado can be traced back to around 700 b.c . The Lado Constitution was passed on 9 May 1772 , after the 60-year War with the Arab Slave traders and gave Executive Powers to the Agofe to defend the Kingdom of Lado . The Constitution also gave institutional powers to women in particular , where women of Lado held and hold onto running too , till todate , of the Official duties of the State Kingdom of Lado .
Briefly , about the structure of the Office of the Agofe
The Office of the Agofe in the Kingdom State or KAARI of Lado is THE GREEN BUREAU of Lado which consists of Seven / 7 Councils which are as follows :
The Regency Council ,
The Privy Council ,
The State Council ,
The Defence Council ,
The Supreme Court Council ,
The Central Bank Council ,
The Council of Chiefs .
The Exercise of Power Under the AGOFE of LADO KINGDOM is divided under Dicastries , and in order to prevent any Abuse of Power or Excesses in the whole Structure of the State of Lado , three Controlling Bodies of Government , were established by the Constitution of Lado , namely :
1. The Legislative Council / or Joroti in Lugbara – Lado Language ,
2. The Executive Council / or Okurujoti in Lugbara – Lado Language ,
3. The Judicial Council / or Liimati in Lugbara – Lado Language .
Each Dicastry is headed by the Coordinator of State who is assisted by the Secretary of State . Each Dicastry has five Directorates each headed by the Director General who is assisted by the Under Secretary of State . Each Directorate is then divided into Departments which are headed by Directors who are assisted by Assistant Secretaries of State. All other Affairs of the State are handled by the Lado Civil Service Staff who are selected in accordance with their Skills , Professional Qualities and Merits . Responsible for the Employment , Promotions and Pensions is the Lado Civil Service Commission , which is placed directly under the Prime Minister ( Keego ) . The Commission is also responsible for the Employment and the Recruitment of the Military and Diplomatic Service Staff of Lado . In the event that any of the People in the Top Hierarchy of State should be engaged in the Abuse of Power against the State and against the Citizens of Lado , be guilty of Misdemeanours or Treason , they will be Impeached . That applies to those who hold the Offices of the State , such as the Prime Minister , the Governor , the Coordinator of State , the State Secretary , the Judges , the Ambassadors and other State Holders of Lado Kingdom .
In brief the Role of Agofe is as follows – THE ROLE OF THE AGOFE OF LADO :
The Agofe of Lado is the Symbol of Unity and the Representation of the People of Lado and Territory of Lado as the Chief of State of Lado in Central Africa / CA .
The Agofe of Lado is the Commander – in – Chief of the Armed Forces of Lado .
The Agofe of Lado is the Diplomat – in – Chief of Lado . He receives the Foreign Ambassadors , and He sends out the Lado Ambassadors to Foreign Countires ( States ) .
The Agofe of Lado Signs Treaties and Agreements with Foreign Countries ( States ) .
The Agofe of Lado is the Dispenser , the Chief Executive – in – Council of Lado , and the Legislator in Chief of Lado . He is also the High Priest and Primate of Lado for Religious Affairs and Faith .
The Agofe of Lado is the Chief of State of Lado . He Signs all the Legislative Acts and Orders in Council , and in Parliament ( JOROTI ) as Chairman .
The Agofe of Lado appoints the Chief of Government , Judges , the Chancellors , the Ambassadors of Lado , the Members of Cabinet ( Ministers ) and Military Officers and Police Officers . The Agofe – in Judiciary and accordingly is the Sovereign of Lado by the Validity the Signiture of Lado , 1815 . In otherwords , the Agofe of Lado is the Representation of the People of Lado and the Land of Lado recognised in International Law , according to the Berlin Treaty of 26 February of 1885 .
N.B : As one of the Fundamental Rights of the Citizens of Lado , according to Lado Constitution , the Lado Political System allows for the Freedom of Expression , the Freedom of Assembly and the Freedom of Association , both in Political and Non-Political Organisations , such as Political Parties , Interest Groups , Pressure Groups , etc… etc….. . The future of the Kingdom State of Lado for any changes to do lies within the wishes of the Citizens of Lado in the Constitution Reviews to do so by the Referendum they will do for it .
N.B / or NOTA BENE : To say a bit more it is wise at least to say something to add to know about the present Agofe / King of Lado , H.M John Bart Agami Onzima II and this is the proven Certified Statement the Agofe issues / or Conveys about himself and his family Background to clear any doubts in on the minds of Readers who would want to know about him being the Agofe , holding the Highest Public Office of the Kingdom State / or KAARI of Lado .
The Interview with John Bart Agami , Ph.D , JD ; ” THE AGOFE OF LADO KINGDOM STATE / OR KAARI OF LADO ”
The given Answers by the Agofe :
” Concerning my Personal Background , may be the first thing I will tell you about is my own family . I think that is where everyone should start . So , the name Agami is my family name . It means you belong to the Agau Clan . Our family where leaders , we stayed in Egypt . We came to what is today known as Ethiopia . And we ruled Ethopia for 7 centuries , that’s from 640 AD to 1270 AD . Due to political upheaval , we left and ended up , today , where we are , in Lado in Equatorial Central Africa (ECA) .
Now my family continued in Politics , though my Ancestor (Negus) Sambala Naiga left Ethiopia , to be exact , Lake Tana where our home at that time was . Today Lake Tana is in Western Ethiopia . And Lado means the land where our Forefathers are buried .
We are today in the Upper Nile Basin ( Nile-Congo watershed ) living between the 3 Mountains :
1) Mt. Liru (Jaki Lolo) ,
2) Mt Iti. ( Dribidu Tere ) where my father (John Anacleto Atobua) , my grandfather and my great grandfather – respectively Lemiro and Ayingani – are buried, whereas Ajua my great great grandfather is buried near Mt Liru ,
3) Mt. Luku ( Sambala Naiga ) where at a time he lived after the Political upheaval that took place under his Reign over Ethiopia .
Politically we have always been in the limelight . Jaki Lolo , Dribidu Tere and Sambala Naiga are the Three Hero-Founders of the Lugbari Nation :- ( Moru – Madi ) at Foot of Mt Rejaf .
Personally , I was born in 1942 , on the 7th March , at 19 hrs 29 mins , on a Monday . I am the second born of our family . John Thomas Candia was the eldest of the family ( born in 1938) . The difference between him and me was four years . And , of course , my Father was John Anacleto Atobua and my mother was Anna Maria Orideru . I am John Bart Onzima ; Agami is our family name . It ( Agami) is also our Clan . So , we all use the name Agami . My own name is Onzima but my father , my brother and I : we all used the first name John as our first name ( Christian name ) .
Tom was born in 1938 when my father was at war . My father reached the Military rank of Colonel , serving in the Kings African Rifles (KAR) 4th Regiment . Which was British , with headquaters in Bombo , Uganda . He went to fight for the British in Burma in WWII with the 4th Regiment of the Kings Africans Rifles , which later was stationed in Jinja , Uganda .
My father resigned to carry out the Independence of Lado in 1947. He was replaced by a British Colonel called Alan Knight , whom I knew very well . He was a sort of family friend , an Englishman , a rare case . My father was assassinated on 14th April 1948 , because he asked USSR to raise the question of Lado at the UN in 1947, and the British found that was not the right thing to do . They said my Father was opening the eyes of many Africans and African countries .
This is because my Father became the Chairman of African Chiefs in a Conference which was held in Manchester in 1945 , and Kwame Nkrumah ( his first name was Francis ) became the Secretary and Jomo Kenyatta ( his real name was Johnston Kamau ) he became Assistant Secretary. This was also known as the Pan African Association . This was a frightening issue for the Americans and the British . Therefore he (Atobua) was assassinated . There was a 4 Year Lado- British war following the assassination of Atobua from 1948 to 1952 . This Lado-British war was stopped by Sir Winston Churchill when he became Prime minister in 1951. But during the time of the assassination of my Father in 1948 , a Labour Government was in Power , led by Rt Hon Clement Richard Attlee as Prime minister of Britain .
At the time I am talking today we have a Labour Government again , led by Rt Hon Anthony Charles Blair . So , I hope they will do something positive this time . And I , myself , after finishing in St. Aloysius college , Nyapea , my basic secondary education in 1960 , I was prevented from taking my Cambridge School Certificate which was given by Cambridge University Examination Syndicate.
The reason was , I was too dangerous to be educated , because Britain could not be sure of my future thinking . So I was taken by force to Kings African Rifles in 1960 and commissioned as a Lieutenant in the third KAR , ( 3rd Regiment ) which was Scottish commanded , East African command , in Nairobi , Kenya .
In 1961 , I was taken to Sandhurst , ( the Royal Military Academy in England ) . I finished my studies there the same year , which was not an easy issue for the English , knowing it was my Grandfather , who fought the British the most (from 1914-1919 and 1930-1937) . I was taken back to the 3rd Regiment in Nairobi , Kenya .
In 1962 , while a Captain I was then taken to go and fight in Western Uganda by the border with Ruanda . At a place called Kisoro . After this , I was taken back to Nairobi and appointed High Commissioner ( KAR ) . Today when you talk of High Commissioner you are talking Diplomacy but Militarily we should say High Adjutant of KAR .
I represented the British Imperial Chief of Staff in Nairobi . On march 1st 1962 , I was appointed a full Colonel without passing through the rank of Major first and sent to command 4th Regiment (KAR) to Uganda . I took the job , to organize within 6 to 9 months , the Uganda army for Independence which was due on 9th October 1962 .
Uganda did not have an Army . They only had a Regiment ( 4th Regiment of KAR ) . They did not have a Ministry of Defence . So I had to organize and Head the Ministry of Defence in Uganda myself . So I did all that , under British Colonial Administration . Colonel William (Bill) Shane who had served with my father in WWII in Burma became my Military Advisor . Before my coming he was serving as Chief of Staff in the British Protectorate of Uganda ( 4th regiment KAR ) .
There was no African I was dealing with . I was only dealing with Europeans . Everything was European in concept and so forth . That is why , I clashed with the British ; and I was arrested on the 11th September 1962 judged at night and 12th September 1962 I was imprisoned for 7 years in Luzira maximum Prison ( next to the execution chamber Room 8 ) . The reasons were all political in Nature .
The issue was : I was asked to sign that Lado should be passed into British Administration . I refused to sign it and for three weeks I was tortured in Luzira prison . In October , I organized with some of my soldiers ( 4th Regiment KAR ) an Escape from the Prison . That was in 1962 . From then till now I have been in exile ( barring a brief period in 1971 from June to Nov and another period from January 1973 to April 1974 ) . I have been in Exile for at least 40 years .
The Experience of the Colonial Period bears no comparison to today .
During those days , one of the things , I noticed was that , you never shared toilets with Europeans or Asians . In every toilet , it was written on your left African , in the middle Asian , on the right European . It was an Offence for an African to urinate in a European toilet . It was changed only after Independence . This is the true nature of Colonialism . You never shared the same Toilet , let alone Restaurants , Hotels and even Schools . You never mixed . But the Colonial System was organized . so that , the Governor was Supreme and Commander-in- Chief .
He took his Orders from England , either from the Foreign Office or Colonial Office from either Secretary of State for Foreign affairs or Colonial Affairs . The legislative power was all invested in the Governor ( the Power to make Laws ) . The Africans were not in the Legislative Council ( Parliament ) .
The country concerned was then divided into Provinces , and each was headed by a Provincial Commissioner , in the case of the English speaking countries , who was always an English man . The Provinces were divided into Districts , and Districts were headed by the District Commissioner , they were all English , or Scottish , or British , or may be Irish .
Therefore you can see in the Whole Administration , there was no African , at all , until the so – called Independence . When were the Black Africans able to gain experience to run themselves ? Black African governments were all overturned , destroyed and all this period they were kept / held out of Government . What could one expect from them , the Africans ? That’s a good question.
My answer is : NOTHING , NOTHING . That’s one of the difficulties today , for the African leaders to run their Countries . To me , they have no knowledge , no experience to run a Nation-State as such , and they were denied that Right . They were not trained to do it . Any African who tried to be patriotic was either killed , or deported or put in prison because you were not allowed to do anything but sit and wait to labour as a Slave . Period !!!
There was no such thing as human Rights . Because you were primitive and you had to be Civilized by a European . As one writer fom Nothern Europe put it ”Africa is like a Black Ghost vessel moored to Europe and Asia ”. The attitude against Africans is the worst .
I could go on and give you a lot of other areas , but this will tell you , if you could not share a toilet , what else could you share ? I think that analyses the difference . The Colonial World was different . It has no comparison with what is today . There is no comparison . You just have to learn it for what it is . You have to learn to understand it bit by bit . That is the wisest thing a wise man or woman can do .
This is what my family has been battling with , and why the Independence of Lado was not given , as we did not respect European Superiority as they claim . ” .
Foot notes lists of the European and United States of America ( U.S.A ) Governor Generals and Top Military Commandants in Occupied Lado Kingdom
The British National Governor Generals in Lado :
26 May 1871 : Major General Sir Samuel White Baker became the first Governor General to Rule Lado for the Khedive of Ottoman Empire.
1873 : General Charles . G . Gordon took over from Sir Samuel White Baker but stayed at Khartum in Sudan without stepping in Lado .
1914 : A Senior Police Officer Arthur Evelyn Weatherhead became representing the British Interests in West Nile / Lado through Uganda . He ( Weatherhead ) waged continual wars against the Lugbari of Lado for fighting the British in Lado Land
A.E. Weatherhead was a British colonial administrator who served in South Africa , Uganda and the Seychelles . Arthur Evelyn Weatherhead became the first District Commissioner of West Nile District. In 1914 , the Southern portion of the Lado Enclave was assigned from Belgium to Uganda under the British Protectorate. Weatherhead took over the administration of the ” New Area ” and built a station in Arua , the present headquarters . He drew the first plan of Arua Town. Locally, Weatherhead was nicknamed Njerekede/ Ejerikedi (a brave honest man they could trust and who trusted them) . A road in Arua is named after him , that is the Weatherhead Park Lane . It starts from the Main Roundabout adjacent to the Golf Course and extends east towards the Presidential Suite in Anyafio Village . He waged continual war against Lugbara groups in an attempt to impose British Colonial Rule . He referred to the Lugbara as ” wild and unattractable ” , and as ” shy and unorganized ” , requiring ” severe measures before submitting to administration ” . Following the British policy of indirect rule , he used the chiefs appointed by the Belgians for administration and control .
1936 – 42 : Martin Willoughby Parr became Governor of Equatoria / Lado .
1948 – 1951: Major General Sir John Hall was the British Governor for Lado Affairs during the period of Prime Minister Winston .S . Churchhill in 1951 when the Prime Minister stopped the war which had again broken between the Lugbari and Britain when the Lado Prime Minister ( Keego ) was killed by the British Agents .
Italian National as the Deputy Governor General in Lado
Captain Romolo Gessi an Italian ( became the Right hand side of as a Vice-Roy to General Charles Gordon in Lado as Gordon apparently refused to Stay and step in Lado ).
A German – Prussian National Governor General in Lado
Dr Eduard Schnitzer nick named or took out to be known as or called Emin Pasha as he turned out to be a Moslem became the Governor General of Lado and was the luckiest to have ruled for 10 years for the Khedive of the Ottoman .
United States of America ( U.S.A ) Governor Generals in Lado
1876 -1878 : The two Governor Generals were , Colonel Henry . G . Prost and Colonel Alexandra . A . Manson .
BELGIUM NATIONAL GOVERNOR GENERALS IN LADO
Belgium Top Commandants and Governor Generals stationed at Uele and at Capital town in Lado :
17 Feb 1897 – Nov 1897 : Louis Napoléon Chaltin (1st time ) stationed at DUNGU in UELE of Lad Region ,
Nov 1897 – 15 Dec 1898 : Léon Charles Edouard Hanolet ( 1st time ) ,
15 Dec 1898 – 1 May 1900 : Jean Baptiste Josué Henry de la Lindi ,
1899 – 1900 : Gustave Ferdinand Joseph Renier ,
1 May 1900 – Mar 1902 : Louis Napoléon Chaltin (2nd time) ,
Mar 1902 – Jan 1903 : Léon Charles Edouard Hanolet ( 2nd time ) ,
1900 – Jan 1903 : Gustave Ferdinand Joseph Renier ,
Jan 1903 – 24 Mar 1904 : Georges François Wtterwulghe ,
Jan 1903 – Aug 1903 : Albéric Constantin Édouard Bruneel ,
Aug 1903 – Mar 1905 : Henri Laurent Serexhe ,
24 Mar 1904 – 1904 : Florian Alexandre François Wacquez ( acting for Wtterwulghe to 8 May 1904 ) ,
1904 – May 1907 : Ferdinand, baron de Rennette de Villers-Perwin ( acting to Aug 1906 ) ,
Mar 1905 – Jan 1908 : Guillaume Léopold Olaerts ,
Jan 1908 – Apr 1909 : Léon Néstor Preud’homme ,
Apr 1909 – 1910 : Alexis Bertrand ,
1910 – Jun 1910 : Charles Eugène Édouard de Meulenaer .
And now Compare this Situation of the Governor Generals of Uganda only from Britain and as an example of the Foreign Governor Generals in Africa to which the European Colonial Powers easily gave Independences to their dominated , indoctrinated , tamed African Colonies and Protectorates .
Lado is really Unique in Africa for her Independence Issue then !
Nota bene – the List of the British Commissioners and Governor Generals in Uganda – All , only from Britain :
The British Nationals ” Commissioners ” of Uganda , 1893 – 19101 Apr 1893 – 30 May 1893 : Sir Gerald Herbert Portal ,
30 May 1893 – 4 Nov 1893 (acting) : James Ronald Leslie MacDonald ,
4 Nov 1893 – 10 May 1894 : Sir Henry Edward Colville ,
10 May 1894 – 24 Aug 1894 (acting) : Frederick Jackson ,
24 Aug 1894 – Dec 1899 : Ernest James Berkeley ,
Dec 1899 – Nov 1901 : Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston ,
Nov 1901 – 20 Nov 1907 : Sir James Hayes Sadler ,
20 Nov 1907 – 31 Jan 1910 : Sir Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell ,
1 Feb 1910 – 18 Oct 1910 : Sir Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux .
The British Nationals ” Governors of Uganda ” , 1910 – 1962
1910 – 1911 : Sir Harry Cordeaux ;
1910 – 1911 : ( also Commissioner in early 1910 ) ,
1911 – 1918 : Sir Frederick Jackson ,
1918 – 1922 : Sir Robert Coryndon ,
1922 – 1925 : Sir Geoffrey Archer ,
1925 – 1932 : Sir William Gowers ,
1932 – 1935 : Sir Bernard Henry Bourdillon ,
1935 – 1940 : Sir Philip Mitchell ,
1940 – 1945 : Sir Charles Dundas ,
1945 – 1952 : Sir John Hathorn Hall ,
1952 – 1957 : Sir Andrew Cohen ,
1957 – 1961 : Sir Frederick Crawford ,
1961 – 1963 : Sir Walter Coutts :
1961 – 1962 : ( Sir Walter Coutts also Governor-General until 1963 ) .
Meanwhile it is important also and hereby to note that the present North and South Independent States of Sudan before as one United Republic State being had their Governor Generals as one before their Independences from each other during and under the Anglo/ Egyptian Dominium Rule over them , from 1820 – 1821 through 1899 ( following the Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium Agreement ) to 1956 .
The List of the Names of former Colonial Governors of Sudan ( both North and South Sudan ; former Anglo / Egyptian Sudan seperate from Lado were as follows :
List of governors of pre – Independence Sudan : Egyptian Sudan ; better later , which became known as the Anglo/ Egyptian Sudan
November 1820 to 1821 : Isma’il , Supreme Commander ,
April 1821 to September 1824 : Muhammad Bey , Supreme Commander ,
September 1824 to May 1825 : Osman Bey , Supreme Commander ,
May 1825 to March 1826 : Mahu Bey Orfali , Supreme Commander ,
March 1826 to June 1838 : Ali Khurshid Pasha , Hakimadar Governor- General ,
June 1838 to 6 October 1843 : Ahmad Pasha abu Wadan , Hakimadar Governor General ,
6 October 1843 to 1844 : Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1844 to 1845 : Ahmad Pasha al-Manikli , Commander ,
1845 to 1849 : Khalid Pasha ( Husru Abu Amud ), Hakimadar Governor- General ,
1849 to 1850 : Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1850 to January 1851 : Abd al-Latif Pasha , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
January 1851 to May 1852 : Rustum Pasha Cerkes , Hakimadar Governor General ,
May 1852 to 1853 : Ismail Pasha Abu Jabal Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1853 to 1854 : Salim Pasha Sayib , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
July 1854 to November 1854 : Ali Pasha Sirri Arnavut , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
November 1854 to 1855 : Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1855 to 1857 : Ali Pasha Jarkis , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1857 to 1858 : Arakil Bey al-Armani Mudir’umum , acting Hakimadar acting Governor General ,
1859 to 1861 : Hasan Bey Salamah , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1861 to 1862 : Muhammad Bey Rasileh, Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1862 to 1865 : Musa Pasha Hamdi , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
1865 to November 1865 : Omar Bey Fahri , acting Hakimadar acting Governor-General ,
November 1865 to 1866 : Jaafar Pasha Sadiq , Hakimadar Governor- General ,
1866 to 5 February 1871 : Jaafar Pasha Mazhar , Hakimadar Governor- General ,
5 February 1871 to October 1872 : Ahmad Mumtaz Pasha , Hakimadar Governor General ,
October 1872 to 1872 : Edhem Pasha al-Arifi at-Atqalawi , acting Hakimadar acting Governor-General ,
1872 to 18 May 1877 : Ismail Pasha Aiyub, Hakimadar Governor-General ,
May 1877 to December 1879 : Charles George Gordon (Gordon Pasha), Hakimadar Governor-General, 1st time ,
December 1879 to February 1882 : Mahummad Ra’uf Pasha , Hakimadar Governor-General ,
February 1882 to May 1882 : Muhammad Nadi Pasha , acting Hakimadar acting Governor-General ,
May 1882 to March 1883 : Abd al-Qadir Pasha Hailmi , Hakimadar Governor- General ,
March 1883 to 5 November 1883 : Ala ad-Din , Hakimadar Governor-General
,5 November 1883 to 18 February 1884 : William Hicks (Hicks Pasha) [dubious – discuss], Hakimadar Governor-General ,
18 February 1884 to 26 January 1885 : Charles George Gordon (Gordon Pasha), Hakimadar Governor-General , 2nd time ; Killed in the Battle of Khartoum ,
26 January 1885 – 2 October 1898 : Territory of Egyptian Sudan under complete control of Mahdiya (Mahdist State) British Military Administration ,
2 September 1898 to 19 January 1899 : Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener , Military Governor Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (condominium) ,
19 January 1899 to 22 December 1899 : Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener , Governor-General ,
22 December 1899 to 31 December 1916 : Sir Francis Reginald Wingate , Governor General ,
1 January 1917 to 20 November 1924 : Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack , Governor General Assassinated in Cairo ,
21 November 1924 to 5 January 1925 : Wasey Sterry , acting Governor- General ,
5 January 1925 to 6 July 1926 : Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer , Governor- General ,
31 October 1926 to 10 January 1934 : Sir John Loader Maffey , Governor- General ,
10 January 1934 to 19 October 1940 : Sir George Stewart Symes , Governor-General ,
19 October 1940 to 8 April 1947 : Sir Hubert Jervoise Huddleston , Governor-General ,
8 April 1947 to 29 March 1954 : Sir Robert George Howe, Governor- General ,
29 March 1954 to 12 December 1955 : Sir Alexander Knox Helm , Governor-General ,
Anglo / Egyptian Sudan : 1 January 1956 Independence as Republic of Sudan
Source of References : Lado News Information Service ( Kingdom of Lado ) .
Lado Enclave ( Equatoria / Lado : News Reports and Journals on World Enclaves ) .
Uganda News Reports on Lado West Nile and Madi ( formerly of Lado Enclave ) .
Book reference informations on Lado – Equatoria : The Lado Enclave ( General Studies Series ) by C. H. Stigand ( AUTHOR ) .
Ronald Okuonzi Lulua – N.C ,
Senior Government Officer ,
Provisional Government in Exile State Kingdom of Lado ,
GREEN BUREAU / GRB ,
KAARI / KINGDOM OF LADO , ( HEART OF AFRICA ) .