THE POLITICAL AND DIPLOMATIC HISTORY OF LADO
It is not True that Lado is not known in the World History . Lado was famously known to the whole Outside World , with all walks of people entering Lado to give such colourful stories and Narrations which today appear to read of Lado and its People in the Sudan Central Africa . Such Narrations include for example of the the presence of a former British Prime Minister , Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill who entered in Lado for his Animal hunting thirst , killed a Big Wide Mouth , ( usually known as White Rhinoceros ) in the Country ( Lado Enclave ) , made the American Former President Theodore ( Teddy ) Roosevelt to rush , hurriedly to Lado and Teddy arrived to Dufile in Lado in 1909 where he stayed to enjoy his hunting of the White Rhinoceroses . While in Lado , he managed to meet with the Chiefs of Lado and talked with them .
In United States it was much talked of Teddy’s travel to Africa , so much that the Journalists recorded that , in his own words before he embarked on his African Journey from U.S.A , he said : I should consider my entire African Trip a success if I could get to that Country Lado ( Lado’s Enclave ) . The White Rhinoceros is the Animal I care to get —- even more than the Elephant . That was after having read from Winston Churchill’s book and of the successively hunting experiece of Churchill in killing a white Rhinoceros in Lado Land . While in Lado , Teddy for him neatly killed Nine of the White Rhinoceroses before his coming back to U.S.A , compared to Winston Churchill who killed only one in his hunting day at Wadelai – Bora Land in Lado . Teddy felt extreemely more proud of having killed or hunted down more Rhinoceroses than Churchill did in the famous Lado Land , ( Country ) . However , a part from the talks about Rhinoceroses , the Best thing He , ( Teddy ) did for Lado was of his talks with Lado Chiefs in 1909 which ended up in a Treaty Agreement known as Dufile ( Dufule ) Agreement between Lado and U.S.A for the Friendly Cooperation between Lado and United States of America . The Cooperation Issue became evident in 1936 whereby , when War broke out into the Kakua – Kajo – Keji war in between Lado and Britain because of Britain’s Occupation Issues over Lado in (1931 – 1936 ) , the War did not end until the United States President Franklin . D . Rooesvelt intervened in 1936 , respecting the Treaty Agreement of Dufile / Dufule of 1909 between Lado and U.S.A which was for their Friendly Cooperation in case Lado was in trouble .
From Britain , what Lado people can remember is always of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill ‘s efforts in 1951 , in stopping the three , 3 years war , (1948 – 1951) following the assassination death of the Prime Minister ( Keego ) of Lado by British Agents , as the war meant breaking the Truce of 1920 reached between Lado and Britain of the first five , 5 years War fought in ( 1914 – 1919 ) , the Lugbari – British War , over the British wanting to Occupy Lado . The Prime Minister Churchill is also remembered of the effective outcome of the talks between him and Lado Envoy in 1953 which resulted in the open talks in 1954 known as the Nile Bridge talks – between Lado Envoy Extraordinary and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in Uganda whereby , it was Agreed that Lado would be Independent in 1960 / 1961 . The Lado Envoy Extraordinary was the physical Person who became later and is the present Agofe / King of Lado todate , His Majesty Culu John Bart Agami Onzima II .
Inspite of all these Political and Diplomatic steps being taken for the Independence and Freedom of Lado , it is still only to the suprise of all , every body on this world yet , knows Lado is not yet an Independent State in Africa till todate 3000 a.d . In brief to say Lado is still moving on , removing the Residual Colonial Mentality of both the Authorities of Belgium and Britain who are mantaining Lado as an Occupied Country State in Africa for themselves since from 1871 through to 1947 when the question of the Decolonisation of Lado was even raised in the United Nations Organisation ( UNO ) – Trusteeship Council which the British wished later would have been discussed and solved altogether with Uganda Issues in its British East Africa Empire Colonies . It was His Majesty Anacleto Atabua , Agofe / King of Lado who had asked the USSR as a Permanent Member of United Nations Organisation ( UNO ) to raise the Issue of Lado Independence on behalf of him and the People of the State of Lado HE represented . The citizens of Lado asked for freedom at that time , for the full Independence and Sovereignty Rights ( Nduvunduvu ) of Lado in Africa .
INTRODUCTION TO EARLY EVENTS LEADING TO THE OCCUPATION OF LADO BY THE ARABS AND EUROPEANS INCLULDING UNITES STATES OF AMERICA .
FACTS ABOUT THE EUROPEAN EXPLORERS IN EAST SUDAN
The seventies and eighties of the 19th century were marked by the colonial annexation of Africa . In a mere decade or two the European Powers had divided almost the entire African continent between themselves . Taking up East Sudan was because it offered an important means for penetrating into Central Africa . The Nile was a natural route leading into the interior and more-over , the occupation of the Sudan was closely linked with the Egyptian question . Any Power which gained control over the flow of the Nile in the Sudan would automatically dominate Egypt .
How was the division of Africa accomplished ?
Individual European adventurers acted as the vanguard of the Capitalist Powers in Africa . South-West Africa was seized single-handed by the German Adventurer and Trader Luderitz . East Africa was ruled by the German Conquistador Peters . Nigeria was conquered by a handful of Enterprising Britishers , who founded the Nigerian Company . The Congo was seized by the Explorer Stanley , who was backed by the King of Belgium , Leopold II .
If their schemes failed ( of these single persons ) , they were forgotten . If they succeeded , their Governments took them under their wing , despatched a fleet or Army to their “Domains” and declared the captured Land their Colony . The picture was the same in the Sudan . In the Eighteen seventie’s , not a single European State undertook operations in the Sudan in its own name . The direct struggle between the Powers began in the Sudan after 1881 , following the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 by the Constantinople Agreement .
How did the adventurers penetrate into the Sudan ?
They took advantage of the desire of the Egyptian Khedive Is-mail of the Ottoman Empire , which was prompted by his Cotton plant Policy , to gain possession of the entire Nile Basin . Ismail was setting up Cotton plantations in Egypt and expanding the irrigation systems . He realised , however , that he could keep the Egyptian irrigation systems fully supplied only by laying hands on the Nile Basin and all its tributaries . Hence , Ismail’s wars in Ethiopia and in Equatorial Africa and the taking over to occupy ( Equatorial / Lado ) . The Khedive’s aggressive policy attracted a number of European Adventurers . The first of these was the Englishman Sir Samuel White Baker . In 1869 , Ismail gave Baker the Administration of the Equatorial Province of Egyptian Sudan and the city of Lado , which he came to regard as his own private domain – LADO EQUATORIA PROVINCE OF EGYPT .
Egyptians , became the property of a handful of extremely Enterprising and Greedy International Adventurers . They levied such heavy taxes on the people ( both in cash and in kind ) and robbed the population to such an extent that a wave of uprisings against the Europeans and European-Egyptian rule soon swept all to drive away these Land seizures and Tourcher of the people .
A German National who was Governor General of Darfur Slatin Pasha wrote in his account :
For over 60 years the Sudan had belonged to the Turks and Egyptians . True , during this period there had been cases when some tribes had refused to pay tribute , for which they had been punished , but nobody had yet dared to rebel against the country’s authorities or declare actual war on them . But now a beggar , an unknown fakir (hermit) with a handful of hungry , poorly armed adherents had appeared and was winning one victory after another . That’s how the Native people started , organised themselves to fight off what to them were the invaders of their Lands .
The European Struggle amongst themselves to occupy Lands in East Sudan .
Having conquered Egypt, the British began to expand the cotton plantations ; in the nineties , work began on the construction of a big reservoir near Aswan . In light of this , the British decided to gain a foothold in the region of the Nile sources and annihilate the Mahdi State at all costs . France also sought possession of the Nile sources and the Anglo-French contest in the partition of Africa reached a new pitch of intensity . On the one hand , the French wanted to fortify their position in Ethiopia ( i.e. , the Region of the Blue Nile sources ) , where they had acquired considerable influence over the new Negus , Menelik . On the other hand , while gaining a foothold in the West and Central Sudan , they also intended to spread their influence to the East Sudan , i.e. , to the region of the White Nile sources . The French expansion in East and West Africa forced the British to speed up their campaign against the Sudan .
The British planned to use other powers in their fight against the French . They supported the Italians in the struggle against French expansion in Ethiopia . Italy , a weak State at the time , offered no threat to Britain , who readily exploited Italian – French differences to prevent French expansion in Ethiopia . Britain also encouraged Belgian expansion ( from the direction of the Congo ) to counter-poise that of the French in the Region of the White Nile sources . Then the Belgians took over Lado – Lado Enclave . Between 1893 and 1894 , the Italians , having gained a foothold in Eritrea (on the Red Sea coast) , invaded the Sudan and took over Kassala .
In 1895 , the Italians started a war against Ethiopia , which evoked a big upsurge of patriotic feelings in the area . The people rallied their forces to repel the Italians and defeated them near Adua on March 1 , 1896 . Ethiopia was helped in this war by France and Russia , particularly by France , who after the war , strengthened her influence in that region . Both Belgium and Italy militarily weak Countries and under the british intimidation had to restituite Kassala and Lado Enclave to Britain by the relative treaties they were forced to sign with Britain from 1906 . Such a Treaty were concluded also with other European Countries : France , German , Portugal and Russia not to assisst Lado incase Lado was / is at war with Britain . Britain promised Morocco for France and Iran for Russia and that is how both Russia and France withdrew themselves or lost interest into coming to take over and assist Lado against Britain .
1821 : The Ottoman / Turco – Egyptian conquest of Sudan ( Sudan was known to them as the black Land Areas or Territories – south of the Sahara Desert by the Arabs since 700 b.c ) was to unify what they called small insignificant independent African – Sudan villages under the Ottoman Empire .
1840 : Captain Salim Bey occupied areas along the Nile up to Gondokoro , ( near Juba – Lado ) whereby , the whole of the Bahr al-Ghazal regions in the South Sudan were invaded and occupied by Turco-Egyptian forces .
1871 : Lado was invaded by the joint forces from Britain , France , Italy , Austria and the United States of America and together with Turco Egyptian forces and was renamed EQUATORIA and left to be administered by Egypt as a Province of Egypt under the Sovereignty of Ottoman ( Turkish ) Empire .
1881 : The Arabized Black Tribes in Sudan under their Spiritual Guide Leader Mahommed Ahmed in 1881- 84 joined Lado ‘s War against the European – Ottoman / Turco – Egyptian government forces and to drive them away from the Sudan ( Black Region ) Lands .
1883 : Mohamed Ahmed ” al-Mahdi ” captured Al-Obeid in South Sudan and from here began the era of building the Mahdi States of the North and South Sudan occupied which was predominately of the Arab descedents who settled in these Regions .
1885 : Mahdist forces continued , captured Khartoum after a long seige ; British General Charles .G . Gordon who by then was the Governor of Sudan was killed . The Sudan States of North predominantly of Arab descent and South predominantly of the original Native Blacks became known as the two Mahdi States as : North and South Mahdi States , excluding EQUATORIA – LADO .
1885 : Al-Mahdi died ; the Khalifa Abdullahi took over to rule the Mahdi States .
1892 : King Leopold of Belgium entered from Congo in Equatoria – Lado , and pretended extending Belgium Administration up to Mongalla which was in South Sudan . But following , the term Agreements of Berlin Treaty , the Equatoria – Lado ” Lado enclave ” became and was exclusively made part of the Belgian Congo when the French interviened in the South Sudan Areas . The French forces under Major Marchand occupied parts of Bahr – al – Ghazal , Mongalla and Western Upper Nile to Fashoda which were all forming the South Mahdi or South Sudan parts and by 1896 the French had an Administration in these areas lying North of Lado . Lado remained still , legally , according to the Berlin General Acts ( Berlin Treaty ) of 26 February 1885 under Belgium .
1896 : Belgians under Military intimidation by Britain agreed by a False Statement made by the British of the illegal term Leasing Lado to Belgium to release then Lado enclave Belgium to British control when King Leopold of Belgium would die .
1897 : French forces from Djibouti set off across Ethiopia aiming – unsuccessfully – to link up with the Fashoda expeditions and annex Southern Sudan to French West Africa . The ” Fashoda incident ” results from Marchand’s encounter with British forces .
1898 : Anglo – Egyptian forces led by General Kitchener overthrew the Mahdist State ( both North and South States ) in the battle of Omdurman . The two countries ( Britain and Egypt ) agreed to establish the Condominium Rule over North and South Mahdist States which later became known : Anglo / Egyptian Sudan .
1899 : Condominium Agreement was signed which involved France . French agreed to withdraw from South Sudan . The Condominium became known as the ANGLO / EGPTIAN Condominium Territory which in future in 1956 will get its Independence and become the Unified / United Republic State of Sudan with the Sovereign Status under the Condominium : Britain and Egypt . ( Britain secreetly had Occupied Egypt in 1882 ) .
1908 : Wad Haboba uprising in the Gezira against the Anglo / Egyptians but never lasted .
1910 : Belgium’s King Leopold died ; the Lado enclave was falsely added to British Administration after twenty – one years of fierce fighting to oust the Foreign Invaders and the Belgians , who had remained with the British to share Lado between them , decided to withdraw their troops . Infact , Britain Made a False Document as said to Lease Lado ; refusing to let go of their Precious Conquest of Lado since Britain could not own Lado by Legal means or on the Battlefield . Britain drew up this False Document saying that Belgium had Leased Equatoria ( Lado ) to Britain after several failed attempts to Force or Bribe the Kings of Lado , like His Majesty / AGOFE / KING , H.M Ayingani Ajua , H.M Anacleto Atobua and more later still would want to force in 1962 the Present King ( AGOFE / KING ) H.M John Bart Agami Onzima II to hand over the Sovereignty of Lado to the British Crown . Britain resorted to cheating and used the false Lease Contract in September 1892 as they ( Belgians ) were bound by the Paris Treaty , the Berlin Treaty and the Vienna Convention to side with Britain in the Question of the Colonies and the Partition of the African Continent . So , at least formally , though not practically , Belgium is still Responsible for the present day Illegal Occupation of Lado .
LADO Nation and People Still Intact
It should still be known to a few that Lado has remained intact as a Nation and a People inside the old borders in spite of the joint Occupation by Britain and Belgium since 1947. Legally , though , it was still the Ottoman Empire which was responsible for the Occupation of Lado , even after the break – up of the Ottoman Empire , which became the Republic of Turkey by the Lausanne Agreement of 24 July 1923 .
In reality , LADO still is withstanding Foreign Occupation as such and till now in the 21st Centuary and the Lado people are still fighting over their Land on the Issue of Independence and Sovereignty Rights in this Water Shade Region of Africa known as ” LADO – The Heart of Africa ” .
LADO ENCLAVE ISSUE IN SUDAN CENTRAL AFRICA AND 0F THE DECOLONISATION ISSUE IN THIS WATER SHED REGION OF AFRICA STILL PENDING TILL TODATE IN THE PERIOD OF 3000 A.D.
In a False Statement to the rest of the world to know , Britain issued and continue still in a wrong direction of Political education propaganda for people to know that , The Lado Enclave in Africa was leased to King Leopold II as a personal consession for his lifetime by Great Britain and with this ( King Leopold II’s death ) , the Lado Enclave was then returned to the British control . Basing their ( Britain / British Governments reasonings ) on this false political propaganda , Britain – the British Governments – have always blocked and are still blocking the Independence issue of Lado in Central Africa .
DISCUSSION OF LADO ISSUES WITH NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES : SUDAN , D R CONGO AND UGANDA
REPUBLIC OF SUDAN STATES AS AN ISSUE OVER LADO KINGDOM
To begin with and in the first place , in writing here , the Official name of the STATE OF LADO , the State Kingdom of Lado , being talked about is bordered by Sudan : North and South Sudan States to the North , by Ethiopia and Kenya to the North – East , by Uganda to the East , by D R Congo / former Zaire to the West and by the Central African Republic to the North – West . And the name Lado is the correct Identity of the people of Lado .
The following are the Regions of Lado Kingdom :
1. ITURI REGIONS – ( Bordered by Democratic Republic of Congo / former Zaire to the West ) ,
2. NILE REGION – ( Bordered by Uganda to the East ) ,
3. TORIT REGION – ( Bordered by Sudan / South Sudan inclusive , Ethiopia , Kenya , and Uganda to the North – East ) ,
4. UELE REGION – ( Bordered by Democratic Republic of Congo / former Zaire and Central African Republic / CAR to the North–West ) ,
5. YEI REGION – ( Bordered by Sudan / South Sudan and Central African Republic / CAR to the North and North–West ) .
The Colonial Writings refered and still refer to Lado Kingdom by different names as it suited or suits their purposes and time , as : Equatoria , Lado Enclave , West Nile , Haut Nil , Southern or South Sudan etc — etc — . The Turco/Egyptian Colonialists called it : The Equatoria Province of Egypt , The British ( at one time ) called it Lado Enclave , while the Belgians called itHaut Nil . And now , the Foreign Occupying Administrations give different names to Lado Kingdom as to what they wish to get after the Partition of Lado Kingdom . An Objective , the Lado Political Authorities are fighting for tooth and Nail .
Was or has there been or is there Lack of Information on Lado Kingdom ?
It is not true that there was or there is no Information on / about Lado Kingdom in Africa but the damn true fact is that , it seems , most of the African people and especially the AfricanPoliticians , or the Educated Africans , do not notice anything unless it appears on BBC or American Radio / Television ( T V ) net works . Yes , unfortunately Lado Politics is not being done through the BBC or the CNN , for a number of reasons which can not be discussed here yet in this Hard_talk message discussion on Lado . But still the Lado People are using their Time , Brains , and Sacrifice as much as they can of their resources for Lado . It cannot be done by sitting and waiting for somebody to give them Money to be an Independent and Sovereign State .
In one way , many of the Africans who are seen , or regard themselves as Politicians or Scolars or Elites should have kept open eyes , open ears , open minds to look back into the past on the question of Lado in Africa . So , lack of information of or about Lado , is because a few only care about Lado and for the rest Lado is not important as they don’t receive Money . Yet these many people in Africa and elsewhere on this world know that this Region in the Heart of Africa – Lado ( known Equatoria ) has a Political Conflict unsolved since the Juba Conference in 1947 . In Africa , this Lado information has already been forwarded even to the African Leaders of the Countries surrounding Lado by the Lado Executive Political Office – THE GREEN BUREAU – headed by the living present AGOFE / KING CULU or His Majesty John Bart Agami Onzima II of the State Kingdom of Lado , that , the Political Solution to the question of Lado , is the getting of Independence of Lado from Belgium and Britain . And this is being done and better to do it through peaceful Political Negotiations to avoid any more Bloodsheds in the Mother Continent of Africa or in the World Political Affairs . And even all Liberation Movements and their Armies in Africa have been informed that Lado would like to reach such Political solution in her Region ( Lado ) through peaceful means .
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