The History Events behind the Political Crisis / Instability in South Sudan

The other side of the History Coin to understand the Instability in the so called South Sudan Country Independent in 2011

The Incredible War side of Lado / Equatoria in the Sudan Central Africa  still or till todate –

TORIT Massacres of 1955 in EQUATORIA – LADO

On 1 January 1956 , Anglo/Egyptian Sudan got Independence under the name of Sudan , from Britain . But all the preparations for the Independence of Lado was stopped by the British Authorities ; and the British hurried to give the Independence of Anglo/Egyptian Sudan after the Torit Massacres of August 1955 and thereby ignored the fact that , there were / are still Four States in that Nile Valley Basin Region : LADO , SOUTH SUDAN , NORTH SUDAN , and EGYPT .

While the People of South Sudan did not object to the inclusion of its Land and People to North Sudan , the people of Lado ( Equatoria ) protested and this was clearly demonstrated by the Liberation War the Lado people of Torit Region , Yeyi Region , and Rholi Region fought . This war was known as the ANYANYA War in Lado / Equatoria from 1955 – 1972 . It was a War of Lado Liberation under Rev . Fr Saturnino Lokure ( Luhure ) a citizen of Lado , who was assassinated on 7 June 1967 . Major General Joseph Lagu of Madi Tribe ( Lado ) was the Military Officer in charge of the Military Affairs .

The Kokora Policy

President , General Jaafar Nimeeri of the Republic State of Sudan by then ( North Sudan and South Sudan united ) , after the Peace Agreement of 27 March 1972 signed in Addis Ababa , in Ethiopia between the Ladoans of Equatoria Region and Sudan State Government , introduced the Policy of trying to solve Lado Affairs and Sudan in the Region in a such away , the Lado Region of Equatoria was finally to be separated from that of South Sudan . This is what is locally termed and widely known in Sudan ( both North and South ) and Lado as Kokora Policy . The New Boundary followed the Colonial Boundaries between Lado and Southern Sudan , by the Cairo Agreement of January 1899 . And so from that Agreement , the Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan State were taking , one step at a time , in order to reach the State Affairs of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Independence of Lado Kingdom in the Heart of Sudan Central Africa as such .

Accordingly so , what is called East , Central and West Equatoria in Sudan or in South Sudan State now is the North part of Lado Kingdom . In brief to say , is that : East , Central and West Equatoria are the Occupied zones of North Lado ( Lado Land ) , now placed , under this newly caved out South Sudan State – Country in 2011 by the Anglo / Americans in the Heart of Africa to hide the Struggling efforts of Lado Indepedence issue . The Anglo / Americans do not want and hate LADO to exist .

Reasons behind the Kokoro Policy

The Dark sides of Events over Lado in the Sudan / Anglo Condominium Lado Enclave stretching South-west from Juba to the Nile-Congo divide was Administered by the Belgians until 1910 when Lado was placed or transferred illegally to be under the Rule of Sudan / Anglo Condominium rule from 1912 , forced by Britain in Partitioning Lado . The North part of Lado was cut off , placed under the Condominium while the South – west being left under Congo to please the Belgium Authority and the South – East ceded to be Administered by the East Africa British Uganda Protectorate . Meaning Lado was Partitioned by Britain into three ( 3 ) parts :

North Lado attached to Sudan , todays ( North and South Sudan States ) South Lado but partitioned once again into two : South-west of Lado given to be under Belgium Congo , South-east  of Lado  placed under the British East Africa Uganda Protectorate .

The British Aim / Objective was that Lado Kingdom eventually would be completely destroyed when Independence would come to be given to the three Countries of Sudan ( 1956 became Independent ) , Congo ( 1960 became Independent ) and Uganda ( 1962 became Independent ) . That way they ( the British ) , politically thought , Lado people would never care of being a State or Kingdom State anymore but would have surrendered to be Ruled / or be under Authority of their Satellite Countries of Sudan , Congo and Uganda , Ruling / Administering Lado Lands and and the Lado People for them .

These Partition spheres were established by 1903 and were incorporated in the Sudan Government Missionary Regulations (1905 ) by which the Church Missions were bound not to conduct evangelism in Northern Sudan of much more Arab / Moslem-Islam influence , or to establish any Mission Stations North of the 10th parallel ( i.e. north of Malakal ) . The Spheres Policy continued to apply throughout the Condominium period though it became more precise and more complex as the Christians Church Mission work extended and New Church Missions entered Sudan .

In 1964 and that is after Independence of the Sudan from 1956 , the Missionaries in the South areas of Sudan were expelled . But already the Opposition to the Government was hardening . In exile in Zaire / Congo , a number of Ladoan and Sudanese Politicians including a Catholic Priest , Father Saturnino Lahure / or Lukure ( a Ladoan ) had already in 1962 formed the Sudan African Closed Districts National Union ( SACONU ) , which took its name from the re-imposition of the Old Condominium Closed Districts in the South . The following year , it moved its Headquarters to South – East of Lado which was under Uganda independent then holding South – East Administration of Lado to Kampala in Uganda and changed its name to the Sudan African National Union ( SANU ) .

In 1963 , within Southern Sudan ( North part of Lado under the Sudan Rule ) , a Guerilla Army ( for Liberation of Equatoria / Lado ) called the ( Anyanya ) was formed . The formation of the Anyanya marks the commencement / beginning of a Nine ( 9 ) year Civil war that engulfed most parts of Southern Sudan then to be Liberated . The Main Aim for Ladoans was to liberate North Part of Lado from the Republic of Sudan Rule by the Ladoans . Many of the Sudanese Black peoples of the South : Dinka , Shilluk , Jo Luo , Nuer and others joined the Ladoans of the Equatoria to fight the Khartum discriminative Administration of and against all the Blacks of the South Regions and mainly of the Christian Faith Beliefs of the Sudan State which was mainly in the hands of the White Arab origines in the North of Sudan State .

In 1969 , an Officer’s coup in Sudan ended a confused and acrimonious period of civilian Rule whereby the Army Officer General Jaafar Nimeiri emerged as the leader of the new Military regime , and was to hold on to Power despite a number of coups that came close to toppling him , until April 1985 . As Sudan Northern politics , under Military control , were gaining more direction and Authority , so the Rebel movement , the Anyanya in the south was becoming more cohesive and effective under the dynamic leadership of Colonel Joseph Lagu ( a Ladoan of Madi Tribe in Lado ) .

The time was Right and Ripe for an attempt at Conciliation / Arbitration to end the War between the Equatoria Lado and the Sudan State .

During the summer of 1971 the World Council of Churches and the All Africa Conference of Churches , sought to bring the two sides together ( Equatoria / LADO and former Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium ) . A conference was arranged in Addis Ababa between the representatives of the Khartoum Government ( led by Abel Alier , Southern Dinka , who was Nimeiri’s Minister for Southern Affairs ) and Representatives of the Lado / or Equatoria Lado Liberation Movement in the South Sudan ( Political Wing of the Anyanya ) .

An Agreement was signed at the end of the Conference , known as the ( KOKORA POLICY ) on February 27th March 1972 , leading to the Regional Self-Government Act for the Southern Provinces , including the attached the North part of Lado Equatoria to South Sudan by the British Authorities in the pre – Independence Ruling of Sudan by the Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium Rule . The Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan State were taking , one step at a time , in order to reach the State Affairs of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Independence of Lado Kingdom in the Heart of Sudan Central Africa as such .

The substantial self-Government accorded to the South by this Agreement enabled the South to enjoy ten years of relative Peace though these years definately were marked by Political instability and wrangling , and deep division between the different Political factions . Much of this revolved around the perceived Dominance of the Dinkas in Southern Politics especially through Abel Alier who was President of the (Southern) High Executive Council from 1972 until 1978 and again in 1980 : The Campaign Aim was : South Sudan not to seperate from the North Sudan .

With this Campaign Aim again by the Sudan State as a whole : both North and South , One draws his / or her own conclusion and that this Addis Ababa Agreement (1972 ) gave the South ten years of some what tense and anxious peace . The dream of a ” Christian ” South largely responsible for its own Affairs and speedily making good all the development losses of the previous 10 to 15 years rapidly faded . The memory of the ” Movement ” and a generalized sense of a ” Christian ” South were not enough to maintain unity .

Southern Politics , particularly after about 1976 became embittered and factional as the Political representatives of the farming peoples of Equatoria / Lado had still to struggle against the Political Power and Expertise of the Politicians of Dinka and other Nilotic peoples of both North and South Sudan Confederates . ln 1978 elections in the South led to the resignation of Abel Alier and the Political emergence of Joseph Lagu as President of the High Executive Council with prominently Equatorian support .

From there on , Southern Politics became increasingly confused and turbulent , leading to ever greater intervention and manipulation from Khartoum , against the spirit of the Addis Ababa Agreement between Equatoria / LADO and the Administration of the Sudan State .

Southern Sudan Politics in short became increasingly unstable as the Politicians fought increasingly for their own rather than Regional Interests . This gave the Northern KHARTUM Government ample opportunity for interference .

In 1981 , President Nimeiri proposed to “re-divide” the South into three separate Regions , transparently a plan to ” Divide and Rule .”

From Equatoria / Lado , and with the Advice from the Lado Agofe’s Office ( the Green Bureau ) this plan was supported by Major General Lagu , indeed promoted then by him , and many Equatorians saw it as an opportunity to escape the Political Dominance of the Nilotics for the South over the Administration over Lado .

Confused maneuverings followed but in June 1983 Nimeiri unilaterally ” redivided ” the Southern Region into three regions , based on the former Equatoria / LADO , Bahr-el-Ghazal , and Upper Nile . This was only one of the issues , that re-awakened the Old North – South hostilities , and also divided Southerners of South Sudan once again to be against the seperation of Northern part of Lado which was attached and till todate is attached to Southern part of or to South Sudan . There was constant flouting of the Addis Ababa Agreement by the Central Government at Khartum , and Southern Sudanese became increasingly suspicious of the North Sudan Government intentions in Major development projects like the Jonglei Canal , the exploitation of the South’s newly discovered oil Reserves and the progressive collapse of the Economy and the Bankruptcy of the Government put increasing pressure on the provision of Government services in the South ( and throughout the Country ) . However and as the catalyst , the most emotive development was the imposition of a form of Sharia Law on all parts of Sudan in September 1983 .

This was the climax of a long process in which Nimeiri had become increasingly involved with renascent fundamentalism . The technocrat secularist Army Colonel who came to power appeared not only to have appreciated increasingly the political Potential of Islam , but also seemed to have undergone some kind of Religious conversion of himself . In particular he fell increasingly under the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and their leader Hassan el-Turabi . It was the imposition of Sharia Law ( though there was no practical possibility of it becoming a reality in the South Sudan and Lado / Equatoria then ) that finally alienated Southern and Christian opinion from the Nimeiri regime : Lado / Equatoria people this time only giving a hand to the Southern Sudanese of the Dinka , Shilluk , Nuer and Jo Luo and other lineages of the real South Sudan Citizens .

The Anglo / American Covert Blue Print Plans : SPLM brakes away from Equatoria / LADO .

Already in May 1983 a mutiny at Bor had begun the revolt . The Sudan People’s Liberation army (SPLA) was soon formed under an ex – Army Colonel , John Garang’ de Mabior trained in America ( USA ) . This rapidly replaced other rebel groups like , the Anyanya Military group units in Equatoria / LADO , and by the summer of 1986 SPLA controlled most of the southern Countrysides and deeply entered in Equatoria Lado , except some Southern border areas and where the SPLA was confining the National Sudanese Army to the Garrison towns .

This situation recreated a “re-division” issue , dividing Southerners , mainly between the Equatorians / LADO on the one hand and the Nilotic tribes of Bahr-el-Ghazal and Upper Nile on the other side of the real South Sudan Regions . The SPLA was seen as being a predominantly Dinka movement and as far as many Equatorians / LADOANS were concerned , the” redivision ” had been not about ending Dinka dominance .

Southerners and southern Christians therefore found themselves deeply divided over the rebel movements . The Churches as a result found it difficult to speak with any clear voice in the present conflict other than on the issue of Sharia Law and the growing Power of the National Islamic Front , the Political Arm of the Muslim brotherhood . The Dinka and Nilotic communities within the major Churches have on the whole sympathized with the SPLA . Many of them joined up , and virtually all their relatives hence got involved in the struggle as put it to Free themselves from the Moslem / Islam North Sudan with the help of the Anglo / American Blue Print Plans .

Equatorians / LADOANS on the other hand have been equally cynical about the Khartum Central Government intentions but then at the same time also mistrust the Dinka – Dominated SPLA under the guide of the Anglo / Americans . This division remained until 1989 although the evident success of the SPLA started drawing increasing numbers of Equatorians to the cause , many of whom are Christians anyway , in otherwards they ( the Lado – Equatorians bowed down to Christian brotherhood to assist the SPLA ) .

The fall of Nimeiri in April 1985 was due in some measure to the Political pressure created by the success of the SPLA under the Anglo / American – USA military Might , but events since then never fundamentally altered the situations in the South . The transitional Military Government of Siwar-al- Dahab ( April 1985 to May 1986 ) and the civilian Government of Sadiq al- Mahdi ( May 1986 ) prosecuted the war with a ferocity only matched by that of the SPLA . The result was a terrible devastation of the South on a scale that far outstrips that of the first civil war by the Anyanya . The year 1988 saw possibly half a million deaths from war , famine and disease . Virtually the entire population of Southern Sudan was displaced , either in North Sudan , in the remote bush in wretched refugee settlements , in the few southern towns left to the Government , or in exile outside the Country Sudan and the lot of Equatorians / LADOANS were left homeless .

In the world picture , the war then really presented all the Christian / Churches , Moslem / Mosques with issues of a complexity that the first civil war undertaken by Anyanya did not . As the war divided Southerners of Sudan , so the attitudes of Christians and of Church leaders became divided .

The tribal dimension of the war opened / roused tribal tensions throughout the South and all the Churches felt was feeling the strains of Tribalism . On the one hand now there are reports from the homelands of the Dinka , long dominated by the SPLA , of many baptisms and confirmations , and of the emergence of many new congregations in areas where previously there were few Christians . At its highest level the SPLA has not expressed any sense of Christian identity , and has in general used a Marxist or secularist terminology . But there are many and increasing numbers of Christians in its forces anyway .

At the time of my writing now still there are no indications that peace is near . National politics continue to be fragmented and without direction. The SPLA is merely continuing escalation of war in the South , failing to bring the Government to the negotiating Table about the Lado Issues as well . There is a sense in which the issues which face Sudan ( both North and South States) now and to which the two Countries still fail to find answers are the same as those which faced the Condominium Government once the Country had in large measure been pacified . What is the place of an African non-Muslim South within a Sudan that is predominantly Arabized and Muslim ? We all know that the British answer vacillated between isolating and incorporating the South . The steady progress of Christian missions in the South during the Condominium period helped develop southern identity and distinctiveness , just as British policy inhibited any over arching sense of National identity . At Independence the religious question was already deeply embedded in the wider question of how National Unity could be forged . In otherwords the Tribe – Nation Identity feeling in building a Nation – State of a purely African Political Nature could be forged .

Two prolonged periods of civil war , and the growth of the Church in the South , together with the spreading influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and an orthodox consciousness in the North have not brought a resolution any nearer to peace in the one time , Anglo / Egyptian Sudan Condominium ( North Sudan / South Sudan ) as termed and Independent two States today .

What next to write on , is now of the future of the two Sudans ( North and South Sudans ) : Both Independent without Lado still being Independent —– Where does lie the answer for Lado Freedom Independence still ?

The Nile Region of Lado Kingdom

Meanwhile , in the Nile Region of Lado ( which in Uganda is called West Nile ) Great Britain had laid down the Border between Lado and Uganda in 1907 , was fighting the British Colonialism for the Independence of Lado Kingdom . And it was this Nile Region of Lado here that if Great Britain got the Signature of Lado Representative , the AGOFE / King of Lado , then Lado would have been Killed as a Political Entity .

The Ituri and Uele Regions of Lado Kingdom

In Ituri Region and Uele Region , which were and are still under the Democratic Republic of Congo / former Zaire Administration ( Belgium Colony ) , the Simba Liberation War by the Ladoans was fought and still being fought for the Independence of Lado and the War follows the 1956 Conference held in Arua town of Lado which included and who became Congo’s first Prime Minister , Mr Patrick Lumumba on the question of Lado and its Peoples Rights to Self – determination ( Lado regarded first and Legally was then still regarded of Congo Belgium ) . So it was important the Agofe of Lado and the future Prime Minister of Congo in 1960 , Mr Patrick Lumumba had to meet for talks . The question of Water issues were also discussed of the Congo and Nile waters at the Conference , ( cf : Nile Waters Agreement of 1929 and Nile Waters Utilization Agreement of 8th November 1959 ) .

While in the Nile Region where the Agofe / King is , every body knows in Lado that , The present AGOFE of Lado Kingdom , refused to sign any Agreement with the British Authorities that the Nile Region ( West Nile and Madi ) was to become British East Africa or Protectorate of Uganda . So , just before the Independence of Uganda on 12 September 1962 , The Agofe himself ( Colonel John Bart Agami Onzima II ) who still is a live todate , was arrested and quickly Sentenced to seven ( 7 Years ) of imprisonment , and imprisoned in Luzira Prison at Kampala in Uganda , for not Signing the Annexation Treaty or Document to Annex Lado to the British East Africa to which Uganda was / is a part .

Lado Political Authorities

The Lado Political Authorities , since 1947 , worked together with the militia Liberation Groups of ( Simba Military units of Ituri and Uele in Congo/Zaire and Anyanya Military units of Torit , Rholi , Yeyi of Lado – Equatoria in Sudan ) under the Agofe and who is the Military Commander-in- Chief of Lado Command based in the Nile Region of Lado . One of the Political Leaders of Lado Kingdom ( North Lado ) , Rev. Father Saturnino Lokure who by the time was in South Lado ( Nile Region of Lado ) was Killed in Uganda by the Uganda Army , when he and some of his Assistants went to collect Medical Supplies for the Refugees and Diplaced Ladoans from ( Yeyi , Torit , Rholi , of Equatoria / Lado ) . This was in the Catholic Mission of Laco in Acholi , Uganda . All Yei , Torit , Rholi Politicians know about this incidence very well . And they are able to figure out Why ? the reason falls within the British appointed Governor of Sudan , General Sir John Maffey Policy or Reccomendation of 1927 and every Body knows too , that Uganda is under British Sovereignty york ( AUTHORITY ) and till todate . The Commonwealth Countries help Carry out the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ‘ s / UK Policies only to destroy Lado .

ABOUT THE ALWAYS MUCH TALK ( BIG MOUTH TALKS ) SUDAN PEOPLES LIBERATION MOVEMENT / ARMY , SPLM / A

Formation of Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement , ( SPLM ) in 1983 against the Ladoans / Lado Citizens where Britain has ever been involved

The old odds of the hatred against the existence of Lado People in Sudan Central Africa was not only in Uganda . In 1983 , Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement ( SPLM ) was founded in the Sudan State to fight the Ladoans and between 1985 and 1987 to the present time Ladoans were / have ever been working hard to prevent Britain using SPLM / SPLA Chairman of Sudan under Colonel John Garang and Uganda under President General Yoweri Museveni to wage wars against Lado . Infact , President General Yoweri Museveni and Colonel John Garang reached a Secreet Agreement over Lado , with the Support of Britain and United States of America , U.S.A . That is why Britain and U.S.A were very Keen on the Issue of an Independent

South Sudan to be created , hoping that , they would / will make it destroy Lado and prevent the Equatoria Region to be a part of Lado . The Religion Factor of MUSLIM / CHRISTIAN was / has been and remains instrumental , a Cover up for destroying the State of Lado Kingdom . From these facts , however , the Ladoans do not know yet how the African Politicians / Elites saw , were seeing / are seeing till now / todate and understand the Sudan SPLM / SPLA wars which were meant to fight the North Sudan Government of Khartum , were always fought in Equatoria ( Lado ) . The Villages destroyed were and times to go on , will always be those in Equatoria , the Leaders of Equatoria get Assassinated or Killed such as Mr Joseph Oduho , when at SPLM / SPLA Meetings .

To the People of Lado ( Ladoans ) know that the true National Citizens of South Sudan : the Dinka tribes , Nuer tribes , Shiluk tribes , Jo-Luo tribes people of the Regions of Southern or South Sudan Country were / are still being used by Britain and United States of America – U.S.A to help them to destroy LADO as a Nation – State Kingdom in Mother Continent Africa . They are also , still busy working now on to Control all , so called Elites of Equatoria ( Lado ) , to work for them to include permanently the Region ( Equatoria / Lado ) as part of South or so called Christian Southern or South Sudan Country Independent under the Anglo / American Sovereignty ever to be . Lado People said and continue to say Big NO and NO to this Anglo/American and heavily being supported Militarily of course by United States of America , ( U.S.A ) . They are using as they have been using before the United Nations ( U.N ) as the Institute to implement their Plans always .

Truely they have Created so , the Southern / or South Sudan as the Independent Country now under them in 2011 and think they have finally Partitioned Lado Kingdom . But on the minds and every body knew and knows till todate and as a reminder to all to know , there was one time a Country in the Nile Basin called South Sudan State Country and indeed separate from North Sudan State Country and State Country – Nation State of Lado .

Ref : Release document from the Government in Exile of the State Kingdom of Lado Occupied in Sudan Central Africa .

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2 thoughts on “The History Events behind the Political Crisis / Instability in South Sudan

  1. Peter Alex Laku Fargalla says:

    I would like to know more in details about the existence of Ladu in the history of the country.And who are the Ladoans in the present south Sudan.

  2. THE NEW BOUNDARU ISSUE OF LADO
    Riduci a iconaSeparaChiudi
    okuonzir (gmail.com)

    THE NEW BOUNDARY ISSUE AT HAND OF LADO ENCLAVE IN SUDAN CENTRAL AFRICA YET —

    According to the British Political Authority The Lado Enclave renamed by the British as such was leased to King Leopold II as a personal consession for his lifetime by the British claim. With his death, the British made Lado to be returned to British control. And the British have always blocked the Independence issue of Lado in the Sudan Central Africa .

    How ?

    TOPIC: THE DECOLONIZATION ISSUE OF LADO IN THE WATERSHED REGION OF AFRICA STILL .

    LADO ISSUE WITH SUDAN ( BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH , D .R . CONGO AND UGANDA AS THE COUNTRY NEIGHBOURS TO LADO

    PART 1

    REPUBLIC OF SUDAN STATE AS AN ISSUE OVER LADO

    To begin wih and in the first place I am writing , I am using the Offiicial name of the STATE OF LADO , the State of Lado I am talking about is bordered by Sudan to the North , by Ethiopia and Kenya to the North – East , by Uganda to the East , by Zaire / Congo to the West and by the Central Africa Republic to the North – West . And the name Lado is the correct Identity of the people of Lado . Take a look at the Map of Lado ( IN THE PART OF THE HISTORIC MAP OF LADO IN AFRICA ) long since established on the World Maps and please Pin or put in Browse to open to see the Map of Lado in its Geographyical position to its Neighbouring Country States sorrounding it :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F

    The following are the Regions of Lado :

    1 . ITURI REGION – ( Bordered by the Zaire / Congo to the West ) ,

    2 . NILE REGION – ( Bordered by Uganda to the East ) ,

    3 . TORIT REGION – ( Bordered by Sudan , Ethiopia , Kenya , and Uganda to the North – East ) ,

    4 . UELE REGION – ( Bordered by Zaire / Congo and Central African Republic / CAR to the North – West ) ,

    5 . YEI REGION – ( Bordered by Sudan and Central African Republic / CAR to the North and North – West ) .

    The Colonial Writings refer to Lado by different names as it suits their purposes and time : Equatoria , Lado Enclave, West Nile , Haut Nil , etc—- etc — . The Turco – Egyptian Colonialists called it : The Equatoria Province of Egypt , The British ( at one time ) called it Lado Enclave , while the Belgians called it : Haut Nil . And now , the Foreign Occupying Administrations give different names to Lado as to what they wish to get after the Partition of Lado . An Objective , the Lado Political Authorities are fighting for tooth and Nail .

    Lack of Information on Lado —

    It is not true that there is no Information on / about Lado but the damn true fact is that , it seems , most of the African people and especially the African Politicians , or the Educated African , do not notice anything unless it appears on BBC or American Radio / Television ( T V ) . Unfortunately Lado Politics is not being done through the BBC or the CNN , for a number of reasons which I am not going to discuss here in this essay on Lado . But still I can say the Lado People are using their time , brains , and sacrifice as much as they can of their resources for Lado . It cannot be done by sitting and waiting for somebody to give them Money to be an Independent and Sovereign State . Many of us Africans who are seen , or regard ourselves as Politicians or Scolars or Elites should have kept open eyes , open ears , open minds to look back into the past on the question of Lado . So we lack information of Lado because few only care about Lado and for the rest Lado is not important as they don’t receive Money . Yet these many people know that this Region in the Heart of Africa – Lado ( known Equatoria ) has a Political Conflict unsolved since the Juba Conference in 1947 .

    Lado information has already been forwarded even to the African Countries who are surrounding Lado that , the Political Solution to the question of Lado , is the getting of Independence of Lado from Belgium and Britain . And this is being done and better to do it through peaceful ( Political ) Negotiations to avoid any more Bloodshed. And even all Liberation Movements and their Armies in Africa have been informed that Lado would like to reach such Political solution in her Region ( Lado ) through peaceful means .

    The LADO Political Strategy :

    In order to grasp the Lado Political System , a quick glances at the Political Stepping Stones to Lado’s present difficulties on the Nile – Watershed of Africa is Required .

    The Sudan ( Here I am refering to the Sudan State ) as an Issue over Lado :

    a ) In 1927 , the British Governor General of Sudan recommended that , in order to occupy and colonise the Africans / Peoples of Lado , such as the Sudanic people of Lado , their Political Leaders ( the Agofe , the Opi – Drikulu , the Opi , Chiefs and Families ) have to be killed or exterminated .

    b ) And Indeed , the British Governments took this policy seriously and practised it in the State of Lado . This in return for Lado slowed down the struggle for the Independence of Lado since 1947 . The Lado Political Authorities Concerned , have all the time to make sure that , they are not exterminated . Why not ? various methods of work has to be done to minimise the chances of getting easily assassinated . If a ruling Agofe dies there is already another prepared to take over for the defence of Lado .

    c ) In 1947 , Juba Conference was held , which was chaired by the Chief Secretary of Anglo – Egyptian Sudan ( North Sudan , South Sudan ) and the State of Lado ( Lado Enclave / Haut Nil ) . The Juba Conference of 1947 , was to determine the case of the Independence of Lado , of which , what you now call Equatoria is a part , by the Cairo Agreement of 19 January 1899 and the Agreement of 13 December 1906 . By then , this part was not occupied by Britain . It was clear that Lado was to be Independent and Sovereign State . Lado was not and Lado is not a part of North or South or called Southern Sudan .

    However , in the same year of April 1947 , the issue of Lado was then raised at the United Nations / UN for the Independence of Lado . Belgium and Britain became the two Joint Administering Countries of Lado . But they never prepared Lado ( Article 73 of UN ) to be an independent and Sovereign State . Instead , on 14 April 1948 , the Prime Minister of Lado Colonel Anacleto Atobua who was being prepared as an Agofe , was assassinated by the British Authorities ; by that time of ( the Labour Government of the Rt . Hon . Clemente Richard Atlee , British Prime Minister ) .

    TORIT Massacres of 1955 :

    On 1 January 1956 , Angolo – Egyptian Sudan got Independence under the name of Sudan , from Britain . But all the preparations for the Independence of Lado was stopped by the British Authorities ; and the British hurried to give the Independence of Anglo -Egyptian Sudan after the Torit Massacres of August 1955 . and thereby ignored the fact that , there were / are Four States in that Nile Valley Basin Region : LADO , SOUTH SUDAN , NORTH SUDAN , AND EGYPT .

    While the People of South Sudan did not object to the inclusion of its Land and People to North Sudan , the people of Lado ( Equatoria ) protested and this was clearly demonstrated by the Liberation War the Lado people of Torit Region ,Yeyi Region and Rholi Region fought . This war was Nicknamed as the ANYANYA War from 1955 – 1972 . It was a War of Lado Liberation under Rev . Fr Saturnino Lokure ( Luhure ) , who was assassinated on 7 June 1967 . Major General Joseph Lagu of Madi Tribe ( Lado ) took over as he was the Military Officer in charge to take over .

    The Kokora Policy :

    President General Jaafar Nimeeri of Sudan of Sudan by then , after the Peace Ageement of 27 March 1972 signed in Addis Ababa , in Ethiopia between the Ladoans of Equatoria Region and Sudan Government, introduced the Policy of trying to solve Lado Affairs and Sudan in the Region in a such away , the Lado Region of Equatoria was finally to be separated from that of South Sudan . This is what is locally termed as ” Kokora Policy ” .

    The New Boundary followed the Colonial Boundaries between Lado and Southern Sudan , Cairo Agreement of January 1899. And so from to that , the Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan were taking , one step at a time . in order , to reach the State of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Independence of Lado . So , what is called East and West Equatoria is ( North Lado ) .

    Meanwhile , in the Nile Region ( which in Uganda is called West Nile ) , which Britain had laid down the Border between Lado and Uganda in 1907 , was fighting the British Colonialism for the Independence of Lado . And it was this Nile Region of Lado here that if Britain got the Signature of Lado Representative, the AGOFE of Lado , then Lado would have been Killed as a Political Entity . In ITURI Region and Uele Region, under the D.R Congo / Zaire Administration ( Belgium ) the Simba Liberation fought for the Independence of Lado .

    But as every body knows in Lado , The AGOFE of Lado , refused to sign any Agreement with the British Authorities that the Nile Region ( West Nile and Madi ) was to become , British East Africa or Protectorate of Uganda . So , just before the Independence of Uganda on 12 September 1962 The Agofe of Lado ( John Bart Agami Onzima II ) , was arrested and quickly Sentenced to 7 Years of imprisonment , and imprisoned in Luzira Prison at Kampala in Uganda , for not Signing the Annexation Treaty or Document .

    Lado Political Authorities :

    The Lado Political Authorities , since 1947 , worked together with the Liberation Groups of ( Ituri – Uele – Torit – Rholi – Yeyi ) of Lado ( Equatoria ) ; based in the Nile Region of Lado . One of the Political Leaders of Lado ( North Lado ) , Rev. Father Saturnino Lokure who by the time was in South Lado ( Nile Region of Lado ) was Killed in Uganda by the Uganda Army , when he and some of his Assistants went to collect Medical Supplies for the Refugees and Diplaced Ladoans from Yeyi ,Torit , Rholi ( Equatoria ) . This was in the Catholic Mission of Laco in Acholi , Uganda . All Yei , Torit , Rholi Politicians know that very well . And they are able to figure out Why ? It falls within the Governor General Sir John Maffey Policy or Reccomendation of 1927 . Uganda and other British Commonwealth Countries are still under British Sovereignty ( AUTHORITY ) . They help Carry out UK Policy .

    On 25 January 1971 , Major General Idi Amin Dada a Kakua – Kuku and of Lado Origin , became the President of Uganda , The AGOFE of Lado returned from Exile in France , and hoped to work with Uganda gradually , and to reach a Political Solution on the Issue of Lado . But things did not work that way , although by 1973 , He managed to Confirm the Boundary Agreement between Lado and Uganda 0f 1907 ( fixed by Sir Wiston S . Churchill ) , by the Agreement of 31 May 1973 ; the Nile Conference held in Kampala , Uganda . This Boundary Agreement is between the Jonam and Madi of Lado and the Acholi of Uganda . It is River Ayugi which is the dividing Natural Feature . But Again the AGOFE’s Life was threatened , so He left Lado in 1994 to continue life in Exile as before since 1962 . He is a Political Refugee for nearly 50 Years as a Stateless Refugee of Lado .

    On 11 April 1979 ,General Idi Amin Dada was overthrown and the Amin Regime in Uganda was over – thrown . The Ladoans of Sudanic Origin were chased and Massacared with Impunity in Uganda , and , even , in Nile Region of Lado itself , ( known in Uganda as West Nile ) , over 350 , 000 People of Lado were Massacred / Perished . It was Recognised by Uganda that , Ladoans are Foreigners in Uganda . Ugandans are / were Right . Because Ladoans’ Country Lado is not yet Independent as a Political Entity . Truely in this War of 1979 ,this time , the Nile Region Ladoans ran to Yeyi – Torit – Rholi – Uele – Ituri Regions of Lado . By 1986 about 500,000 Sudanic of Lado were Killed . And also in 1983 SPLM was founded

    In the same Year , 9 May 1979 , The Sudanic Refugee Organisation / SRO was formed by the AGOFE and the Chiefs of Lado to Protect the People of Lado and the Land of Lado . And the Provisional Government of Lado was formed on 7 March 1987 on the date , AGOFE of Lado , Karanga Ayingani Ajua who was assassinated by the Britain ( Turkey and Egypt on 7 March 1887 .

    FORMATION OF SPLM IN 1983

    Between 1985 and 1987 to the present time Ladoans have been working hard to prevent Britain using SPLM / SPLA Chairman of Sudan under Colonel John Garang and Uganda under President Yoweri Museveni . In fact President Yoweri Museveni and Colonel John Garang reached a Secreet Agreement over Lado , with the Support of Britain and United State of America , USA .

    That is why Britain and USA are very Keen on the Issue of an Independent South Sudan , hoping that, they will make it destroy Lado and prevent the Equatoria Region to be a part of of Lado . The Religion Factor of MOSLEM / CHRISTIAN is a Cover- up for destroying the State of Lado . The Ladoans do not know how the African Politicians / Elites see and understand the Sudan SPLM / SPLA wars which are meant to fight the North Sudan Government of Khartum , are always fought in Equatoria ( Lado ) .

    The Villages destroyed are those in Equatoria , the Leaders of Equatoria get Assassinated or Killed such as Mr . Joseph Oduho , when at SPLM / SPLA Meetings . To the the People of Lado ( Ladoans ) , the Dinka – Nuer – Shiluk , Jo – Luo Regions of Southern Sudan Country People are being used by Britain to help them to destroy LADO as a State – Nation . They are also busy working on to Control all so called Elites of Equatoria ( Lado ) to work for them to inclulde the Region ( Equaoria / Lado ) as part of South or so called Christian Southern Sudan Country to become Independent . Lado says Big NO and NO to this Britain’s Plans being supported by United States of America , ( USA ) . They are using the United Nations ( UN )as the Institute to implement their Plans . To Creat the Southern / or South Sudan as a Country . But every body knows there was one time a Country in the Nile Basin called South Sudan State Country and indeed separate from North Sudan State Country and State Country of Lado . ( Ref : The Map of Africa 1895 )

    Another witty People along side working to destroy Lado , if Ladoans may be wrong are the many people working in Churches , are being used to help Britain to Kill Lado . Especially such People are being paid special attention and treatment in the terms of ( Money , Property owns and Honour ) under the British Proptection and Governments . USA leads here too when it comes to the Creating Issue of the Independence Issue of Southern Sudan .

    Well , Ladoans know for themselves and they do understand how difficult it is for one to Risk and Sacrifice so much in order to work for Lado . No Independence and Sovereignty come easily anyway .

    PART II

    The LADO Political Strategy :

    In order to grasp the Lado Political System , a quick glances at the Political Stepping Stones to Lado’s present difficulties in the Nile – Watershed of Africa is Required .

    The Sudan ( Here I am refering to the Sudan State as a whole given Independence by the Anglo/ Sudan Condominium in 1956 ; that is including the newly created present South Sudan State out of the Republic of Sudan ) as an Issue over Lado :

    a ) In 1927 , the British Governor General of Sudan recommended that , in order to occupy and colonise the Africans / Peoples of Lado , such as in particular , the Sudanic people of Lado , their Political Leaders the AGOFE – Chief of State , the OPI DRIKULU – Head Chiefs , the OPI – Chiefs and BA-RUINI – Families ) have to be killed or exterminated .
    .
    b ) And Indeed , the British Governments took this policy seriously and practised it in the State of Lado . This in return for Lado slowed down the struggle for the Independence of Lado since 1947 . The Lado Political Authorities Concerned , have all the time to make sure that , they are not exterminated . So various methods of work has to be done to minimise the chances of getting easily assassinated ; that is if a ruling AGOFE – Chief of State dies there is already another prepared to take over for the defence of Lado .

    c ) In 1947 , Juba Conference was held , which was chaired by the Chief Secretary of Anglo – Egyptian Sudan ( North Sudan , South Sudan as one State ) and the State of Lado ( Lado Enclave / Haut Nil . The Juba Conference of 1947 , was to determine the case of the Independence of Lado , of which , what you now call Equatoria is a part , by the Cairo Agreement of 19 January 1899 and the Agreement of 13 December 1906 . By then , this part was not occupied by Britain . It was clear that Lado was to be Independent and Sovereign State . Lado was not and Lado is not a part of North or South or called Southern Sudan at all till todate .

    However , in the same year of April 1947 , the issue of Lado was then raised at the United Nations / UN for the Independence of Lado . Belgium and Britain became the two Joint Administering Countries of Lado . But they ( both Britain and Belgium failed ) never prepared liked to prepare Lado following ( Article 73 of UN ) to be an Independent and Sovereign State . Instead , on 14 April 1948 , the Prime Minister of Lado Colonel Anacleto Atobua who was being prepared as an AGOFE – Chief of State / King , was assassinated by the British Authorities – by that time ( in the Ruling Administration period of the Labour Government of the Rt . Hon . Clemente Richard Atlee ) , British Prime Minister by then .

    TORIT Massacres of 1955 in Lado :

    On 1 January 1956 , Anglo/Egyptian Sudan got Independence under the name of Sudan , from Britain . But all the preparations for the Independence of Lado was stopped by the British Authorities and the British hurried to give the Independence of Anglo/Egyptian Sudan after the Torit Massacres of August 1955 to have ignored and thereby ignored the fact that , there were / are still Four States in that Nile Valley Basin Region of Africa : LADO STATE , SOUTH SUDAN STATE , NORTH SUDAN STATE , and EGYPT .

    While the People of South Sudan did not object to the inclusion of its Land and People to the North Sudan by then , the people of Lado ( Equatoria ) protested and this was clearly demonstrated by the Liberation War the Lado people of Torit Region ,Yeyi Region and Rholi Region fought . This war was Nicknamed and known as the ANYANYA War from 1955 – 1972 . It was a War of Lado Liberation under Rev . Fr Saturnino Lokure ( Luhure ) , who was assassinated on 7 June 1967 . Major General Joseph Lagu of Madi Tribe ( Lado ) directly took over then as he was the Military Officer in charge to do so .

    The Kokora Policy – What was it about this Policy ?

    President , Major – General Jaafar Neimeri of the State Republic of Sudan ( North and South Sudan United or Unified Independent ) by then , after the Peace Ageement of 27 March 1972 signed in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia , between the Ladoans of Equatoria Region and Sudan Government, introduced the Policy of trying to solve Lado Affairs and Sudan in the Region in a such away , the Lado Region of Equatoria was finally to be seperated from that of South Sudan . This is what was / is locally termed as ” Kokora Policy ” till todate .

    The New Boundary followed the Colonial Boundaries between LADO and SOUTHERN SUDAN , by the Cairo Agreement of January 1899. And so from to that , the Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan were taking , one step at a time inorder to reach the State of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Total Independence of Lado . So , what is called East and West Equatoria in Southern Sudan is part of North Lado or is ( North Lado ) .

    THE NILE REGION IN UGANDA .

    Meanwhile , in the Nile Region part of Lado ( which in Uganda is called West Nile ) , which Britain had laid down the Border between Lado and Uganda in 1907 , was fighting the British Colonialism for the Independence of Lado . And it was this Nile Region of Lado here , that , if Britain got the Signature of Lado Representative , the “AGOFE – CHIEF OF STATE/KING ” of Lado , then LADO would have been Killed as a Nation Political Entity .

    But as every body knows in Lado , The AGOFE of Lado , refused to sign any Agreement with the British Authorities that the Nile Region ( West Nile and Madi ) was to become , the British East Africa or Protectorate of Uganda . So , just before the Independence of Uganda on 12 September 1962 , The AGOFE of Lado ( John Bart Agami Onzima II ) who is still a life in a Political Exile , was arrested and quickly Sentenced to 7 Years of imprisonment , and imprisoned in Luzira Prison at Kampala in Uganda , for not Signing the Annexation or Document for Lado to be under the British Empire Rule like Uganda so had become under the British Authority Rule which till today is , though independent , is Under Britsh Rule . ( Best to discuss this issue on ” What British Commonwealth means to African ” .

    ITURI REGION AND UELE REGION IN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO / ZAIRE .

    In ITURI Region and UELE Region , under the D.R Congo / Zaire Administration ( Belgium Colony ) the Simba War Liberation was fought for the Independence of Lado .
    MAP OF LADO LAND AND ITS PEOPLE

    Check on reading this website please about Lado :

    http://www.npi-news.dk/page37.htm

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