The other side of the History Coin to understand the Instability in the so called South Sudan Country Independent in 2011
The Incredible War side of Lado / Equatoria in the Sudan Central Africa still or till todate –
TORIT Massacres of 1955 in EQUATORIA – LADO
On 1 January 1956 , Anglo/Egyptian Sudan got Independence under the name of Sudan , from Britain . But all the preparations for the Independence of Lado was stopped by the British Authorities ; and the British hurried to give the Independence of Anglo/Egyptian Sudan after the Torit Massacres of August 1955 and thereby ignored the fact that , there were / are still Four States in that Nile Valley Basin Region : LADO , SOUTH SUDAN , NORTH SUDAN , and EGYPT .
While the People of South Sudan did not object to the inclusion of its Land and People to North Sudan , the people of Lado ( Equatoria ) protested and this was clearly demonstrated by the Liberation War the Lado people of Torit Region , Yeyi Region , and Rholi Region fought . This war was known as the ANYANYA War in Lado / Equatoria from 1955 – 1972 . It was a War of Lado Liberation under Rev . Fr Saturnino Lokure ( Luhure ) a citizen of Lado , who was assassinated on 7 June 1967 . Major General Joseph Lagu of Madi Tribe ( Lado ) was the Military Officer in charge of the Military Affairs .
The Kokora Policy
President , General Jaafar Nimeeri of the Republic State of Sudan by then ( North Sudan and South Sudan united ) , after the Peace Agreement of 27 March 1972 signed in Addis Ababa , in Ethiopia between the Ladoans of Equatoria Region and Sudan State Government , introduced the Policy of trying to solve Lado Affairs and Sudan in the Region in a such away , the Lado Region of Equatoria was finally to be separated from that of South Sudan . This is what is locally termed and widely known in Sudan ( both North and South ) and Lado as Kokora Policy . The New Boundary followed the Colonial Boundaries between Lado and Southern Sudan , by the Cairo Agreement of January 1899 . And so from that Agreement , the Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan State were taking , one step at a time , in order to reach the State Affairs of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Independence of Lado Kingdom in the Heart of Sudan Central Africa as such .
Accordingly so , what is called East , Central and West Equatoria in Sudan or in South Sudan State now is the North part of Lado Kingdom . In brief to say , is that : East , Central and West Equatoria are the Occupied zones of North Lado ( Lado Land ) , now placed , under this newly caved out South Sudan State – Country in 2011 by the Anglo / Americans in the Heart of Africa to hide the Struggling efforts of Lado Indepedence issue . The Anglo / Americans do not want and hate LADO to exist .
Reasons behind the Kokoro Policy
The Dark sides of Events over Lado in the Sudan / Anglo Condominium Lado Enclave stretching South-west from Juba to the Nile-Congo divide was Administered by the Belgians until 1910 when Lado was placed or transferred illegally to be under the Rule of Sudan / Anglo Condominium rule from 1912 , forced by Britain in Partitioning Lado . The North part of Lado was cut off , placed under the Condominium while the South – west being left under Congo to please the Belgium Authority and the South – East ceded to be Administered by the East Africa British Uganda Protectorate . Meaning Lado was Partitioned by Britain into three ( 3 ) parts :
North Lado attached to Sudan , todays ( North and South Sudan States ) South Lado but partitioned once again into two : South-west of Lado given to be under Belgium Congo , South-east of Lado placed under the British East Africa Uganda Protectorate .
The British Aim / Objective was that Lado Kingdom eventually would be completely destroyed when Independence would come to be given to the three Countries of Sudan ( 1956 became Independent ) , Congo ( 1960 became Independent ) and Uganda ( 1962 became Independent ) . That way they ( the British ) , politically thought , Lado people would never care of being a State or Kingdom State anymore but would have surrendered to be Ruled / or be under Authority of their Satellite Countries of Sudan , Congo and Uganda , Ruling / Administering Lado Lands and and the Lado People for them .
These Partition spheres were established by 1903 and were incorporated in the Sudan Government Missionary Regulations (1905 ) by which the Church Missions were bound not to conduct evangelism in Northern Sudan of much more Arab / Moslem-Islam influence , or to establish any Mission Stations North of the 10th parallel ( i.e. north of Malakal ) . The Spheres Policy continued to apply throughout the Condominium period though it became more precise and more complex as the Christians Church Mission work extended and New Church Missions entered Sudan .
In 1964 and that is after Independence of the Sudan from 1956 , the Missionaries in the South areas of Sudan were expelled . But already the Opposition to the Government was hardening . In exile in Zaire / Congo , a number of Ladoan and Sudanese Politicians including a Catholic Priest , Father Saturnino Lahure / or Lukure ( a Ladoan ) had already in 1962 formed the Sudan African Closed Districts National Union ( SACONU ) , which took its name from the re-imposition of the Old Condominium Closed Districts in the South . The following year , it moved its Headquarters to South – East of Lado which was under Uganda independent then holding South – East Administration of Lado to Kampala in Uganda and changed its name to the Sudan African National Union ( SANU ) .
In 1963 , within Southern Sudan ( North part of Lado under the Sudan Rule ) , a Guerilla Army ( for Liberation of Equatoria / Lado ) called the ( Anyanya ) was formed . The formation of the Anyanya marks the commencement / beginning of a Nine ( 9 ) year Civil war that engulfed most parts of Southern Sudan then to be Liberated . The Main Aim for Ladoans was to liberate North Part of Lado from the Republic of Sudan Rule by the Ladoans . Many of the Sudanese Black peoples of the South : Dinka , Shilluk , Jo Luo , Nuer and others joined the Ladoans of the Equatoria to fight the Khartum discriminative Administration of and against all the Blacks of the South Regions and mainly of the Christian Faith Beliefs of the Sudan State which was mainly in the hands of the White Arab origines in the North of Sudan State .
In 1969 , an Officer’s coup in Sudan ended a confused and acrimonious period of civilian Rule whereby the Army Officer General Jaafar Nimeiri emerged as the leader of the new Military regime , and was to hold on to Power despite a number of coups that came close to toppling him , until April 1985 . As Sudan Northern politics , under Military control , were gaining more direction and Authority , so the Rebel movement , the Anyanya in the south was becoming more cohesive and effective under the dynamic leadership of Colonel Joseph Lagu ( a Ladoan of Madi Tribe in Lado ) .
The time was Right and Ripe for an attempt at Conciliation / Arbitration to end the War between the Equatoria Lado and the Sudan State .
During the summer of 1971 the World Council of Churches and the All Africa Conference of Churches , sought to bring the two sides together ( Equatoria / LADO and former Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium ) . A conference was arranged in Addis Ababa between the representatives of the Khartoum Government ( led by Abel Alier , Southern Dinka , who was Nimeiri’s Minister for Southern Affairs ) and Representatives of the Lado / or Equatoria Lado Liberation Movement in the South Sudan ( Political Wing of the Anyanya ) .
An Agreement was signed at the end of the Conference , known as the ( KOKORA POLICY ) on February 27th March 1972 , leading to the Regional Self-Government Act for the Southern Provinces , including the attached the North part of Lado Equatoria to South Sudan by the British Authorities in the pre – Independence Ruling of Sudan by the Sudan Anglo / Egyptian Condominium Rule . The Ladoans who signed the Addis Ababa Agreement of 27 March 1972 with the Government of Sudan State were taking , one step at a time , in order to reach the State Affairs of the Lado Political Authority when the issue of Lado could reach a Final Solution to the Independence of Lado Kingdom in the Heart of Sudan Central Africa as such .
The substantial self-Government accorded to the South by this Agreement enabled the South to enjoy ten years of relative Peace though these years definately were marked by Political instability and wrangling , and deep division between the different Political factions . Much of this revolved around the perceived Dominance of the Dinkas in Southern Politics especially through Abel Alier who was President of the (Southern) High Executive Council from 1972 until 1978 and again in 1980 : The Campaign Aim was : South Sudan not to seperate from the North Sudan .
With this Campaign Aim again by the Sudan State as a whole : both North and South , One draws his / or her own conclusion and that this Addis Ababa Agreement (1972 ) gave the South ten years of some what tense and anxious peace . The dream of a ” Christian ” South largely responsible for its own Affairs and speedily making good all the development losses of the previous 10 to 15 years rapidly faded . The memory of the ” Movement ” and a generalized sense of a ” Christian ” South were not enough to maintain unity .
Southern Politics , particularly after about 1976 became embittered and factional as the Political representatives of the farming peoples of Equatoria / Lado had still to struggle against the Political Power and Expertise of the Politicians of Dinka and other Nilotic peoples of both North and South Sudan Confederates . ln 1978 elections in the South led to the resignation of Abel Alier and the Political emergence of Joseph Lagu as President of the High Executive Council with prominently Equatorian support .
From there on , Southern Politics became increasingly confused and turbulent , leading to ever greater intervention and manipulation from Khartoum , against the spirit of the Addis Ababa Agreement between Equatoria / LADO and the Administration of the Sudan State .
Southern Sudan Politics in short became increasingly unstable as the Politicians fought increasingly for their own rather than Regional Interests . This gave the Northern KHARTUM Government ample opportunity for interference .
In 1981 , President Nimeiri proposed to “re-divide” the South into three separate Regions , transparently a plan to ” Divide and Rule .”
From Equatoria / Lado , and with the Advice from the Lado Agofe’s Office ( the Green Bureau ) this plan was supported by Major General Lagu , indeed promoted then by him , and many Equatorians saw it as an opportunity to escape the Political Dominance of the Nilotics for the South over the Administration over Lado .
Confused maneuverings followed but in June 1983 Nimeiri unilaterally ” redivided ” the Southern Region into three regions , based on the former Equatoria / LADO , Bahr-el-Ghazal , and Upper Nile . This was only one of the issues , that re-awakened the Old North – South hostilities , and also divided Southerners of South Sudan once again to be against the seperation of Northern part of Lado which was attached and till todate is attached to Southern part of or to South Sudan . There was constant flouting of the Addis Ababa Agreement by the Central Government at Khartum , and Southern Sudanese became increasingly suspicious of the North Sudan Government intentions in Major development projects like the Jonglei Canal , the exploitation of the South’s newly discovered oil Reserves and the progressive collapse of the Economy and the Bankruptcy of the Government put increasing pressure on the provision of Government services in the South ( and throughout the Country ) . However and as the catalyst , the most emotive development was the imposition of a form of Sharia Law on all parts of Sudan in September 1983 .
This was the climax of a long process in which Nimeiri had become increasingly involved with renascent fundamentalism . The technocrat secularist Army Colonel who came to power appeared not only to have appreciated increasingly the political Potential of Islam , but also seemed to have undergone some kind of Religious conversion of himself . In particular he fell increasingly under the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and their leader Hassan el-Turabi . It was the imposition of Sharia Law ( though there was no practical possibility of it becoming a reality in the South Sudan and Lado / Equatoria then ) that finally alienated Southern and Christian opinion from the Nimeiri regime : Lado / Equatoria people this time only giving a hand to the Southern Sudanese of the Dinka , Shilluk , Nuer and Jo Luo and other lineages of the real South Sudan Citizens .
The Anglo / American Covert Blue Print Plans : SPLM brakes away from Equatoria / LADO .
Already in May 1983 a mutiny at Bor had begun the revolt . The Sudan People’s Liberation army (SPLA) was soon formed under an ex – Army Colonel , John Garang’ de Mabior trained in America ( USA ) . This rapidly replaced other rebel groups like , the Anyanya Military group units in Equatoria / LADO , and by the summer of 1986 SPLA controlled most of the southern Countrysides and deeply entered in Equatoria Lado , except some Southern border areas and where the SPLA was confining the National Sudanese Army to the Garrison towns .
This situation recreated a “re-division” issue , dividing Southerners , mainly between the Equatorians / LADO on the one hand and the Nilotic tribes of Bahr-el-Ghazal and Upper Nile on the other side of the real South Sudan Regions . The SPLA was seen as being a predominantly Dinka movement and as far as many Equatorians / LADOANS were concerned , the” redivision ” had been not about ending Dinka dominance .
Southerners and southern Christians therefore found themselves deeply divided over the rebel movements . The Churches as a result found it difficult to speak with any clear voice in the present conflict other than on the issue of Sharia Law and the growing Power of the National Islamic Front , the Political Arm of the Muslim brotherhood . The Dinka and Nilotic communities within the major Churches have on the whole sympathized with the SPLA . Many of them joined up , and virtually all their relatives hence got involved in the struggle as put it to Free themselves from the Moslem / Islam North Sudan with the help of the Anglo / American Blue Print Plans .
Equatorians / LADOANS on the other hand have been equally cynical about the Khartum Central Government intentions but then at the same time also mistrust the Dinka – Dominated SPLA under the guide of the Anglo / Americans . This division remained until 1989 although the evident success of the SPLA started drawing increasing numbers of Equatorians to the cause , many of whom are Christians anyway , in otherwards they ( the Lado – Equatorians bowed down to Christian brotherhood to assist the SPLA ) .
The fall of Nimeiri in April 1985 was due in some measure to the Political pressure created by the success of the SPLA under the Anglo / American – USA military Might , but events since then never fundamentally altered the situations in the South . The transitional Military Government of Siwar-al- Dahab ( April 1985 to May 1986 ) and the civilian Government of Sadiq al- Mahdi ( May 1986 ) prosecuted the war with a ferocity only matched by that of the SPLA . The result was a terrible devastation of the South on a scale that far outstrips that of the first civil war by the Anyanya . The year 1988 saw possibly half a million deaths from war , famine and disease . Virtually the entire population of Southern Sudan was displaced , either in North Sudan , in the remote bush in wretched refugee settlements , in the few southern towns left to the Government , or in exile outside the Country Sudan and the lot of Equatorians / LADOANS were left homeless .
In the world picture , the war then really presented all the Christian / Churches , Moslem / Mosques with issues of a complexity that the first civil war undertaken by Anyanya did not . As the war divided Southerners of Sudan , so the attitudes of Christians and of Church leaders became divided .
The tribal dimension of the war opened / roused tribal tensions throughout the South and all the Churches felt was feeling the strains of Tribalism . On the one hand now there are reports from the homelands of the Dinka , long dominated by the SPLA , of many baptisms and confirmations , and of the emergence of many new congregations in areas where previously there were few Christians . At its highest level the SPLA has not expressed any sense of Christian identity , and has in general used a Marxist or secularist terminology . But there are many and increasing numbers of Christians in its forces anyway .
At the time of my writing now still there are no indications that peace is near . National politics continue to be fragmented and without direction. The SPLA is merely continuing escalation of war in the South , failing to bring the Government to the negotiating Table about the Lado Issues as well . There is a sense in which the issues which face Sudan ( both North and South States) now and to which the two Countries still fail to find answers are the same as those which faced the Condominium Government once the Country had in large measure been pacified . What is the place of an African non-Muslim South within a Sudan that is predominantly Arabized and Muslim ? We all know that the British answer vacillated between isolating and incorporating the South . The steady progress of Christian missions in the South during the Condominium period helped develop southern identity and distinctiveness , just as British policy inhibited any over arching sense of National identity . At Independence the religious question was already deeply embedded in the wider question of how National Unity could be forged . In otherwords the Tribe – Nation Identity feeling in building a Nation – State of a purely African Political Nature could be forged .
Two prolonged periods of civil war , and the growth of the Church in the South , together with the spreading influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and an orthodox consciousness in the North have not brought a resolution any nearer to peace in the one time , Anglo / Egyptian Sudan Condominium ( North Sudan / South Sudan ) as termed and Independent two States today .
What next to write on , is now of the future of the two Sudans ( North and South Sudans ) : Both Independent without Lado still being Independent —– Where does lie the answer for Lado Freedom Independence still ?
The Nile Region of Lado Kingdom
Meanwhile , in the Nile Region of Lado ( which in Uganda is called West Nile ) Great Britain had laid down the Border between Lado and Uganda in 1907 , was fighting the British Colonialism for the Independence of Lado Kingdom . And it was this Nile Region of Lado here that if Great Britain got the Signature of Lado Representative , the AGOFE / King of Lado , then Lado would have been Killed as a Political Entity .
The Ituri and Uele Regions of Lado Kingdom
In Ituri Region and Uele Region , which were and are still under the Democratic Republic of Congo / former Zaire Administration ( Belgium Colony ) , the Simba Liberation War by the Ladoans was fought and still being fought for the Independence of Lado and the War follows the 1956 Conference held in Arua town of Lado which included and who became Congo’s first Prime Minister , Mr Patrick Lumumba on the question of Lado and its Peoples Rights to Self – determination ( Lado regarded first and Legally was then still regarded of Congo Belgium ) . So it was important the Agofe of Lado and the future Prime Minister of Congo in 1960 , Mr Patrick Lumumba had to meet for talks . The question of Water issues were also discussed of the Congo and Nile waters at the Conference , ( cf : Nile Waters Agreement of 1929 and Nile Waters Utilization Agreement of 8th November 1959 ) .
While in the Nile Region where the Agofe / King is , every body knows in Lado that , The present AGOFE of Lado Kingdom , refused to sign any Agreement with the British Authorities that the Nile Region ( West Nile and Madi ) was to become British East Africa or Protectorate of Uganda . So , just before the Independence of Uganda on 12 September 1962 , The Agofe himself ( Colonel John Bart Agami Onzima II ) who still is a live todate , was arrested and quickly Sentenced to seven ( 7 Years ) of imprisonment , and imprisoned in Luzira Prison at Kampala in Uganda , for not Signing the Annexation Treaty or Document to Annex Lado to the British East Africa to which Uganda was / is a part .
Lado Political Authorities
The Lado Political Authorities , since 1947 , worked together with the militia Liberation Groups of ( Simba Military units of Ituri and Uele in Congo/Zaire and Anyanya Military units of Torit , Rholi , Yeyi of Lado – Equatoria in Sudan ) under the Agofe and who is the Military Commander-in- Chief of Lado Command based in the Nile Region of Lado . One of the Political Leaders of Lado Kingdom ( North Lado ) , Rev. Father Saturnino Lokure who by the time was in South Lado ( Nile Region of Lado ) was Killed in Uganda by the Uganda Army , when he and some of his Assistants went to collect Medical Supplies for the Refugees and Diplaced Ladoans from ( Yeyi , Torit , Rholi , of Equatoria / Lado ) . This was in the Catholic Mission of Laco in Acholi , Uganda . All Yei , Torit , Rholi Politicians know about this incidence very well . And they are able to figure out Why ? the reason falls within the British appointed Governor of Sudan , General Sir John Maffey Policy or Reccomendation of 1927 and every Body knows too , that Uganda is under British Sovereignty york ( AUTHORITY ) and till todate . The Commonwealth Countries help Carry out the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ‘ s / UK Policies only to destroy Lado .
ABOUT THE ALWAYS MUCH TALK ( BIG MOUTH TALKS ) SUDAN PEOPLES LIBERATION MOVEMENT / ARMY , SPLM / A
Formation of Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement , ( SPLM ) in 1983 against the Ladoans / Lado Citizens where Britain has ever been involved
The old odds of the hatred against the existence of Lado People in Sudan Central Africa was not only in Uganda . In 1983 , Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement ( SPLM ) was founded in the Sudan State to fight the Ladoans and between 1985 and 1987 to the present time Ladoans were / have ever been working hard to prevent Britain using SPLM / SPLA Chairman of Sudan under Colonel John Garang and Uganda under President General Yoweri Museveni to wage wars against Lado . Infact , President General Yoweri Museveni and Colonel John Garang reached a Secreet Agreement over Lado , with the Support of Britain and United States of America , U.S.A . That is why Britain and U.S.A were very Keen on the Issue of an Independent
South Sudan to be created , hoping that , they would / will make it destroy Lado and prevent the Equatoria Region to be a part of Lado . The Religion Factor of MUSLIM / CHRISTIAN was / has been and remains instrumental , a Cover up for destroying the State of Lado Kingdom . From these facts , however , the Ladoans do not know yet how the African Politicians / Elites saw , were seeing / are seeing till now / todate and understand the Sudan SPLM / SPLA wars which were meant to fight the North Sudan Government of Khartum , were always fought in Equatoria ( Lado ) . The Villages destroyed were and times to go on , will always be those in Equatoria , the Leaders of Equatoria get Assassinated or Killed such as Mr Joseph Oduho , when at SPLM / SPLA Meetings .
To the People of Lado ( Ladoans ) know that the true National Citizens of South Sudan : the Dinka tribes , Nuer tribes , Shiluk tribes , Jo-Luo tribes people of the Regions of Southern or South Sudan Country were / are still being used by Britain and United States of America – U.S.A to help them to destroy LADO as a Nation – State Kingdom in Mother Continent Africa . They are also , still busy working now on to Control all , so called Elites of Equatoria ( Lado ) , to work for them to include permanently the Region ( Equatoria / Lado ) as part of South or so called Christian Southern or South Sudan Country Independent under the Anglo / American Sovereignty ever to be . Lado People said and continue to say Big NO and NO to this Anglo/American and heavily being supported Militarily of course by United States of America , ( U.S.A ) . They are using as they have been using before the United Nations ( U.N ) as the Institute to implement their Plans always .
Truely they have Created so , the Southern / or South Sudan as the Independent Country now under them in 2011 and think they have finally Partitioned Lado Kingdom . But on the minds and every body knew and knows till todate and as a reminder to all to know , there was one time a Country in the Nile Basin called South Sudan State Country and indeed separate from North Sudan State Country and State Country – Nation State of Lado .
Ref : Release document from the Government in Exile of the State Kingdom of Lado Occupied in Sudan Central Africa .